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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho partners with Flashpoint’s executive team to develop, communicate, and execute strategic initiatives pertaining to Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP Customer Success
Jake Wells leads the company’s customer success team, serving as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.

WikiLeaks Publishes CIA Documents Detailing “Brutal Kangaroo” Tool and LNK Exploits

Blog
June 23, 2017

On June 22, 2017, WikiLeaks released a new cache of documents detailing four tools allegedly used by the CIA as part of its ongoing “Vault 7” campaign. The leaked tools are named “EzCheese,” “Brutal Kangaroo,” “Emotional Simian,” and “Shadow.” When used in combination, these tools can be used to attack systems that are air-gapped by using weaponized USB drives as an exfiltration channel. Per the documentation, deployment of the tool takes place by unwitting targets; however, the use of such tools could also easily be deployed purposefully by complicit insider actors.

Brutal Kangaroo

Brutal Kangaroo is a suite of tools that can be used to attack air-gapped networks by using weaponized USB drives as a covert channel. For configuration, an attacker would have the ability to pick how the tool is delivered; the tool can be set to no configuration, EzCheese, “Lachesis” LinkFiles, or “RiverJack” LinkFiles. EzCheese, Lachesis, and RiverJack appear to be LNK exploits that can be used to gain access to a system with little to no user interaction. Brutal Kangaroo also has the ability to read configuration files and compress the data, making detection and analysis much more difficult.

EzCheese

EzCheese is an LNK exploit which can be used to exploit systems via USB drives. The payload can be configured to use an x86 or x64 DLL file, which can be executed simply by viewing the directory in Explorer. Per the documentation released by WikiLeaks, EzCheese was patched as of March 2015; analysis suggests that EzCheese is the LNK exploit patched in CVE-2015-0096. Open Source analysis of Microsoft patches issued during this period identify two exploits using LNK files, CVE-2010-2568 (MS10-046) and CVE-2015-0096. CVE-2015-0096 is particularly interesting, as this exploit uses the same flaw as MS10-046, which was not fully patched by Microsoft. MS10-046 was made public with the analysis of “Stuxnet,” and was an LNK exploit identified inside of the binary file. Stuxnet was used to attack air-gapped networks with weaponized USB drives, suggesting an overlap of tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs).

Lachesis (Okabi Links)

Lachesis can be deployed using autorun.inf on a USB drive when a drive is inserted into a machine, and can also be configured with an x86 or x64 DLL’s for code execution. This works for Windows 7 systems, and the CVE for this exploit is currently unknown.

RiverJack (Okabi Links)

RiverJack is another technique for launching exploits via USB. To launch, RiverJack uses the library-ms functionality to gain execution. Per the documentation, LNK files can be set to hidden and it is not necessary to view these files for deployment. This exploit works against Windows 7, 8, and 8.1; the current CVEs surrounding this technique are currently unknown.

Emotional Simian

Emotional Simian is a data collections tool that can be used to gather files from infected systems and store them on USB drives. This tool can be configured to find files based on certain patterns, such as by filenames or extensions. File collection can occur on target systems based on modified and accessed dates in order to not collect duplicate files. Emotional Simian can also be configured to remove itself from an infected machine based on the date of the system; by default, it is set to remove itself after two years.

While this can be deployed by witting participants and insiders, the main deployment method is intended to be covert via unwitting hosts. In order to compromise the air-gapped systems, attackers will infect systems to which they have access, which are known as the “primary host.” Once a USB drive from this host has been compromised, it can be plugged into an air-gapped system where data collection begins; the data can then be saved to a separate partition on the USB drive. Once data is collected and the USB is plugged back into the primary host, other tools can be used to siphon the data off of the system. The data is then later processed.

Shadow

Once the USB tools have been deployed inside of a network, Shadow can be used to set up covert channels which can be used to send files back and forth. Similar to Emotional Simian, Shadow can be configured to collect certain files based on filename patterns and modified times. USB drives can be configured to be converted into Shadow drives, which allocate 10 percent of a USB drive partition for moving files. Infected systems can receive packet broadcasts with instructions and collected files can be assembled for post-processing. If pieces are missing, the tool will label chunks as missing; these missing pieces of data can be collected and reassembled later.

Assessment

While the tools described are used primarily by nation-state actors for covert data collections against unwitting victims, the tools could be used by a malicious insider for covertly collecting files. Flashpoint assesses with moderate confidence that the March 2015 patching of LNK exploit CVE-2015-0096 is likely EzCheese, which was an extension of patch MS10-046. MS10-046 was exploited by Stuxnet to attack air-gapped networks via USB drives, which is a significantly overlapping tactic, technique, and procedure (TTP) between Stuxnet and Brutal Kangaroo. LNK exploits are dangerous as they require little to no user interaction, and infection can occur simply by having the file rendered on the system.

Nine days prior to the release of the new Vault 7 dump, Microsoft patched CVE-2017-8464, which was described as a remote code execution vulnerability using LNK exploits; this exploit was rated as critical and in the wild. In the patch notice, Microsoft mentioned that the code could be used and deployed to removable drives to infect hosts. Microsoft did not provide the source of where the information on the vulnerability came from; it is currently unknown if CVE-2017-8464 fixes the LNK exploits described above.

For mitigations, Flashpoint recommends monitoring USB drive use because it is the primary deployment vector for these tools. LNK files should not typically be on USB drives; their presence may serve as an early warning of potentially suspicious activities.

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