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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho leads the company’s sales and client engagement & development teams, which also includes customer success, solution architecture, business development, strategic integrations, and the FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP, Client Engagement & Development and Solution Architecture
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
Justin Rogers
VP Revenue Operations
Justin Rogers leads the Revenue Operations team at Flashpoint, aligning marketing, sales, partnerships, and customer success across vision, planning, process, and goals. He leverages over 15 years of experience in security, strategy, product design, and implementation to drive growth, provide an end-to-end view of the customer journey, and a seamless customer experience. Recently, Justin led Marketing for Centripetal, bringing the first Threat Intelligence Gateway to market. Previously, he managed operations of a Counter IED lab electronics forensics division while forward deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Justin holds a BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of New Hampshire.
Glenn Lemons
Executive Director of Customer Success
Glenn Lemons is a Executive Director of Customer Success at Flashpoint. He previously served as the acting Director of Citigroup's Cyber Intelligence Center where he was responsible for analyzing and reacting to intelligence from a variety of threats. These threats ranged from fraudulent activity and attempting to defraud Citi's clients to supporting security operations for the firm's worldwide network presence. He has extensive experience working with multiple clients across the financial services, manufacturing, healthcare, and public sectors. Glenn also has more than 26 years of intelligence experience within the operational and support communities in the U.S. military and federal civilian service; seven of which focused on both defensive and offensive cyber operations. While working for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, he testified numerous times before U.S. Congressional committees and member requested open and closed sessions.
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Steve Leightell
Steve started his career in Internet sales in the early 1990s and was always a top sales rep before transitioning to business development. By the early 2000s, he was the Director of Business Development at DWL, where he managed a team that built partnerships with Accenture, Oracle, Tata Consulting, Wipro, Cognizant and IBM. Steve designed the channel and strategy that ultimately culminated in the acquisition of DWL by IBM in 2005. He went on to lead a global team within IBM that was responsible for major system integrator partnerships. In 2008, he left IBM to found a niche consulting firm focused on business development for SaaS organizations. Steve holds a BA in anthropology and sociology from Carleton University in Ottawa.
Ellie Wheeler
Ellie Wheeler is a Partner at Greycroft and is based in the firm’s New York office. Prior to joining Greycroft, Ellie worked in a similar role evaluating investment opportunities at Lowercase Capital. Ellie also worked at Cisco in Corporate Development doing acquisitions, investments, and strategy within the unified communications, enterprise software, mobile, and video sectors. While at Cisco, she was involved in multiple acquisitions and investments, including PostPath, Jabber, Xobni, and Tandberg. She began her career in growth capital private equity at Summit Partners in Boston. Ellie graduated magna cum laude from Georgetown University with a BA in Psychology and holds an MBA from Harvard Business School.
Glenn McGonnigle
Glenn McGonnigle is a General Partner at TechOperators. Prior to launching TechOperators in 2008, Glenn was CEO of VistaScape Security Systems, a venture-backed provider of enterprise intelligent video surveillance software. He lead the company through its successful sale to Siemens Building Technologies. Previously, Glenn was a co-founder and senior executive of Atlanta-based Internet Security Systems (ISS) where he helped raise initial venture capital and launch the business. For 7 years, he led the business development team in developing sales channels and entering the managed security services market. During his tenure, the company grew from startup to revenues of over $225 million and was later acquired by IBM for $1.3 billion.
Peter George
Peter George has an established track record of building companies that deliver sustained growth and profits and in identifying critical worldwide partnership opportunities that strategically expand market share. Prior to becoming President and CEO of Fidelis Security Systems in 2008, Mr. George spent the last seven years as President and CEO of Crossbeam Systems, the market leader in the high-end segment of the Unified Threat Management market, where he took the company from being a pre-revenue start-up to over $50 million in revenue. Previously, he was President of Nortel Networks Enterprise Business in Europe, Middle-East, and Africa, responsible for managing more than 5,000 employees and $2 billion in revenue. Mr. George came to Nortel via their 1998 acquisition of Bay Networks where he was serving as vice president of European operations. During his tenure at Wellfleet and Bay, he played key sales executive roles in New England and in Europe. Prior to joining Wellfleet, Mr. George served as the Northeast regional manager and GM of Canada at 3Com Corporation, and also held senior management positions at Ungerman Bass. He received his BA from the College of the Holy Cross, and has done graduate studies at Harvard and Oxford University.
Brendan Hannigan
Brendan joined Polaris Partners in 2016 as an entrepreneur partner. In this role, he focuses on funding and founding companies in the technology sector with a concentration in cloud, analytics, and cybersecurity. Brendan is a co-founder of Sonrai Security and chairman of Twistlock, both Polaris investments. He also currently serves on the board of Bitsight Technologies and Flashpoint. A 25 year technology industry veteran, Brendan was most recently the general manager of IBM Security. Under Brendan’s leadership, IBM Security grew significantly faster than the overall security market to become the number one enterprise security provider in the world with almost $2B of annual revenue.

The Insider Threat Intelligence Cycle

Blog
July 10, 2019

By Eric Lackey

A growing number of organizations across the public and private sectors are recognizing insider threat as a critical area of concern. In response, many are taking measures to defend assets from risks posed by employees and trusted third parties.

Insiders pose unique challenges for defenders. Perimeter security tools, for example, are unlikely to hamper privileged insiders. Combating insider threats requires security teams to understand which of their organization’s assets insiders may threaten, and how. Obtaining these insights requires an insider threat program (ITP) supported by an intelligence operation.

Let’s examine how the intelligence cycle can help ITPs more effectively identify, investigate, and mitigate insider threats by identifying knowledge gaps, collecting and analyzing information to address those gaps, and leveraging their findings to inform a course of action.

Image 1: Diagram illustrating the steps of the intelligence cycle.

Step 1: Planning & Direction

During this first step of the intelligence cycle, intelligence requirements are developed that define the direction and objective(s) of the insider threat program. These IRs should address critical knowledge gaps with respect to the ITP’s ability to identify, investigate, and/or mitigate an insider threat.

To illustrate this process, let’s walk through a hypothetical scenario. Suppose a consumer electronics company decides to establish an ITP after a competitor faced considerable financial and reputational damages when designs for an upcoming product were leaked after being sold by a rogue employee a dark-web marketplace. To protect its organization from facing a similar incident, the ITP launches an intelligence operation with the following IRs:

  • IR No. 1: What communication platforms and/or methods are actors using to recruit employees to carry out malicious activity?
 
  • IR No. 2: Are external threat actors actively attempting to recruit our employees?
 
  • IR No. 3: Do any of our employees intend to abuse their privileges for malicious purposes?
 
  • IR No. 4: Which of our assets are most likely to be targeted by external actors through insiders, and why?
 
  • IR No. 5: What tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) are common among insiders seeking to access and exfiltrate assets?
 
  • IR No. 6: What TTPs are external threat actors using to recruit insiders?

Step 2: Collection

After specifying their IRs, ITPs should proceed to the next step of the intelligence cycle: collection. This step entails gathering timely, accurate, and relevant data that should ultimately enable ITPs to satisfy IRs. Collecting data solely from internal sources such as email logs, internet history, and event logs is crucial but on its own, this data often presents an incomplete picture of risk. ITPs should also seek data from external sources that can provide insight into threat-actor activity, such as recent legal proceedings and relevant observations from ITP professionals at other organizations, to name a few.

Returning to our example, suppose the electronics company’s ITP identified and collected data from the following sources in order to satisfy the IRs specified in step one:

  • Deep and dark web (DDW) forums, encrypted chat services, and other illicit online communities where keywords related to the organization’s name, industry, and intellectual property had surfaced in recent discussions among threat actors (all IRs).
 
  • User behavior analytics (UBA) tools and other internal systems the ITP’s organization uses for monitoring employee activity (IR No. 3).
 
  • Specialized information-sharing groups (including Infragard and the ISACs) where ITP professionals share observations about insider-threat TTPs and other trends, as well as ITP best practices (all IRs except for IR No. 2 and IR No. 3).
 
  • Law-enforcement bulletins, Department of Justice press releases, court records, and other government documents detailing recent insider-threat incidents, TTPs, and other relevant information (all IRs except for IR No. 2 and IR No. 3).

Step 3: Analysis

During analysis, the next step of the intelligence cycle, ITPs examine the data they’ve collected, resolve inconsistencies, determine the extent to which this data satisfies their IRs, and ultimately deduce meaningful, actionable conclusions.

Returning again to our example, suppose the electronics company’s ITP reaches the following conclusions during analysis with respect to its IRs:

  • IR No. 1: What communication platforms and/or methods are actors using to recruit employees to carry out malicious activity?

After monitoring various illicit online communities for mentions of relevant keywords in threat-actor discussions, the ITP identifies a list of DDW forums, illicit marketplaces, and encrypted chat rooms where threat actors have attempted to recruit insiders at similar companies in the same industry.

Based on court records indicating that an insider at a company in the same industry was initially recruited via social media, the ITP identifies certain social media platforms as additional recruitment vectors.

According to recent discussions among threat actors on a particular DDW forum, the ITP determines that numerous threat actors are targeting unknowing, non-malicious insiders via spear phishing in hopes of gaining access to sensitive information.

  • IR No. 2: Are external threat actors actively attempting to recruit our employees?

While monitoring various illicit online communities, the ITP did not identify any instances of external threat actors directly targeting their organization or company insiders engaging in malicious activity.

  • IR No. 3: Do any of our employees intend to abuse their privileges for malicious purposes?

While the team’s internal systems flagged unusual activity on several occasions, the ITP’s follow-up investigation found no active threats.

  • IR No. 4: Which of our assets are most likely to be targeted by external actors through insiders, and why?

After analyzing the data from the sources detailed in the collections section, the ITP, in coordination with key stakeholders, determined its most sensitive assets are its product designs, manufacturing process documents, competitive research, and product roadmaps, which are highly desirable to adversarial nation states and private firms willing to steal intellectual property to gain a competitive edge or monetize another company’s research and development investments.

In some cases, external actors have been known to contact insiders via social media and use social engineering tactics to manipulate the insider into providing access to targeted assets.

  • IR No. 5: What tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) are common among insiders seeking to access and exfiltrate assets?

Based on public records, the team learns that malicious insiders have been known to gain access to data and systems unrelated to their line of work in a number of ways, including social engineering, using administrative or hacking tools, compromising a colleague’s account, or simply requesting permission outright.

After gaining access to targeted assets, many less-sophisticated insiders may simply exfiltrate it by sending it to a personal email account or saving it to an external USB drive, making little effort to conceal their activities. However, based on information shared by other ITP professionals, the team learns that some insiders have been known to use more advanced techniques for obfuscation that are more difficult to detect, such as steganography. It’s also particularly common for insiders to exfiltrate data shortly before leaving a company.

  • IR No. 6: What TTPs are external threat actors using to recruit insiders?

Malicious insiders have been known to be active on illicit forums and marketplaces so they can be reached by threat actors willing to pay them for exploiting their privileged access. Threat actors have also been known to leverage social media to target, contact, and recruit insiders.

However, malicious insiders are just one form of insider threat, and understanding how negligent or compromised insiders can expose sensitive assets is a core component of any comprehensive ITP. Discussions on DDW forums and encrypted chat services revealed that threat actors frequently target unwitting insiders through phishing emails or other social engineering tactics.

Step 4: Production

Since intelligence should always be actionable, it is never enough to simply answer the questions designated as IRs. The insights gleaned during the analysis stage must be acted upon—either by the ITP and/or the appropriate internal stakeholders.

In the case of the electronics company’s ITP, let’s say that based on its analysis, they propose various new policies and controls to help better protect critical assets from insider threats. These include a process for monitoring employees from hiring to departure, stringent identity and access management (IAM) controls, monitoring of access to and movement of previously identified critical assets, and measures to prevent data exfiltration such as prohibiting the use of USB drives.

The team also designs an organization-wide training program to educate employees on how to identify and respond to threats that involve social engineering, as well as best practices to prevent internal privilege escalation, such as locking their computers when away from their desk and practicing strong password hygiene. In addition, the ITP leverages insights they’ve gleaned to refine their parameters for flagging unusual user activity on the organization’s network for further investigation.

Step 5: Dissemination & Feedback

It takes a village to combat insider threat, and the success of an ITP depends on its ability to engage in effective collaboration across business functions such as cyber and physical security, human resources, IT, and legal teams, as well as data and system network architects and C-level leadership. All of these stakeholders play essential roles in an ITP due to their unique perspective and access to information.

In our example, suppose that after sharing their proposed plan for new policies and controls, network architects and cybersecurity personnel provide feedback that enables the ITP to fine-tune the plan to more effectively prevent privilege escalation. In addition, suppose that after sharing their initial proposals with the human resources department, the company’s head of HR reaches out to the ITP with a watchlist of high-risk personnel and to coordinate an action plan for addressing suspected or confirmed cases of insider threat.

Conclusion

Given the unique challenge of protecting an organization’s assets from those who have been entrusted with privileged access, an ITP’s work is never truly done. And as such, the intelligence cycle should be an ongoing process. ITPs should continuously search for new insight into the ways in which insiders could compromise their organization’s assets, refine or establish new IRs accordingly, glean meaningful analysis, and develop new policies and controls to help safeguard these assets from insider threats.

To learn more about the nuances of managing insider risks and components of an effective insider threat program, download our latest research paper, Insider Threats Pose Unique Set of Challenges.

Eric Lackey

Principal Advisor

Eric Lackey, Flashpoint’s principal advisor of insider threat program management, is an experienced professional in the areas of insider threat and counterintelligence with over 20 years of experience providing support to criminal investigations, threat intelligence analysis, network investigations, and digital forensics. Prior to joining Flashpoint, Eric most recently worked for one of the largest global financial services institutions on the Global Information Security Insider Threat team. Prior to this role, Eric spent the previous 10 years as a Senior Insider Threat and Counterintelligence Analyst for the Air Force Office of Special Investigations, as part of his 23 years of service within the Department of Defense. Eric holds a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration and a Master of Science in Digital Forensic Science.

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