Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho partners with Flashpoint’s executive team to develop, communicate, and execute strategic initiatives pertaining to Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP Customer Success
Jake Wells leads the company’s customer success team, serving as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.

Threat Actors Shift to Android-Based Carding, Struggle with iOS

May 9, 2018

Cybercriminals operating on Russian-language Deep & Dark Web (DDW) forums are demonstrating an increased interest in using mobile operating systems—specifically Android—to evade detection when using stolen payment card data to make fraudulent purchases online, Flashpoint analysts said.

Since these schemes, known as carding, are typically carried out using desktop computers, many cybercriminals seem to believe that e-commerce retailers’ anti-fraud systems may be less likely to identify carded purchases made from mobile operating systems. Not only has this perception led more cybercriminals to attempt carding via Android mobile devices, it has also encouraged those who lack such devices to instead use virtual machines (VMs) designed to emulate Android smartphones. In fact, since VM Android emulators eliminate the need to acquire a physical Android device, cybercriminals typically prefer using emulators rather than actual smartphones for mobile carding.

Russian-speaking cybercriminals’ shift toward Android-based carding demonstrates their willingness to adapt their tactics to capitalize on perceived security blind spots. Indeed, there appears to be a consensus among cybercriminals that (1) making carded e-commerce transactions from mobile devices or emulators has a higher success rate than other methods and (2) working with the open-source Android OS is far easier and more straightforward than doing so with iOS devices.

Tutorials for Android-Based Carding Gain Popularity

The presence of carding tutorials on Russian-language DDW forums lowers the barrier to entry for abusing Android technology among low-skill fraudsters. In January 2017, a threat actor operating on a lower-tier Russian-language forum posted a comprehensive guide for setting up Android devices for carding. Despite the post now being more than a year old, forum members continue to use and refer to this tutorial when discussing carding schemes.

Cybercriminals appear to be primarily be using Android versions 4.4–4.4.4 (KitKat) and 5.0–5.1.1 (Lollipop) to carry out carding schemes. One threat actor recommends using Android version 4.4.4, warning that certain applications recommended in their tutorial would not work as well on later versions. Other actors have claimed it is easier to achieve root access on version 4.4.2, and one emulator popular on Russian-language forums is available for versions 4.4.2 and 5.1.1.

The aforementioned Android versions are outdated and no longer supported with security patches. To gain access to KitKat or Lollipop, threat actors may seek out older Android devices or, more likely, run a VM that allows them to emulate these operating systems on a computer.

Cybercriminals Struggle to Leverage IOS Devices

While threat actors are well-versed in the practice of abusing Android devices and emulators for carding, the configuration of iOS devices for similar schemes continues to present obstacles, preventing iOS-based carding from becoming widespread. Threat actors must jailbreak—the process of escalating privileges to bypass manufacturer restrictions—an iOS device in order to make the modifications necessary for carding schemes.

The fact that relatively few threat actors are attempting to use iOS devices to commit fraud reflects cybercriminals’ tendency to avoid methods perceived as technically demanding. Open-source operating systems such as Android can be modified more easily to meet a threat actor’s needs than can closed-source operating systems such as iOS, which does not support emulators nor many other tools and modifications favored by cybercriminals.


A growing number of Russian-speaking threat actors appear to be using Android devices and emulators to make carded purchases using stolen U.S. credit card data. Flashpoint analysts believe that Android will play an increasingly vital role in cybercriminal operations as threat actor communities seek to tap into consumers’ increased use of mobile devices for retail purchases. Meanwhile, notwithstanding the aforementioned examples, the vast majority of cybercriminals believe configuring iPhones for carding schemes to be too difficult at present, due to the lack of open-source code or effective emulators for iOS, as well as other stringent security measures taken by Apple.


Flashpoint Analyst Team

The Flashpoint analyst team is composed of subject-matter experts with tradecraft skills honed through years of operating in the most austere online environments, training in elite government and corporate environments, and building and leading intelligence programs across all sectors. Our team covers more than 20 languages including Arabic, Mandarin, Farsi, Turkish, Kazakh, Spanish, French, German, Russian, Ukrainian, Italian, and Portuguese.

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