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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho leads the company’s client engagement and development team, which includes customer success, business development, strategic integrations and the FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP, Client Engagement & Development
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
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Refund Fraud and Fake Receipts Proliferate on the Deep & Dark Web

Blog
March 7, 2018

Recognizing customer satisfaction as a key driver of retention, many retailers have implemented generous refund or replacement policies. Unfortunately, these policies can be susceptible to various forms of merchant abuse. Refund fraud is a pervasive form of merchant abuse in which a threat actor purchases a product from an online store and has it shipped to their home or a drop site. After delivery, the actor falsely claims that there was an issue in the delivery of the product, prompting the company to issue a refund. For example, fraudsters may claim they never received the item, received an empty box, items were missing from their shipments, they received the wrong item, or the item arrived in a damaged state. Thus, the fraudster receives their chosen product at no cost.

Refund fraud is openly discussed on the underground forums of the Deep & Dark Web (DDW), where illicit vendors offering fraudulent refund services are commonplace. These vendors offer their service in securing fraudulent refunds on behalf of clients. Since accomplishing a successful refund depends more on a vendor’s social engineering skills than on bypassing any particular type of anti-fraud measure, many vendors offer refunds for a variety of companies.

Image 1: A screenshot shared by a client of a DDW refund fraud vendor showing an email reply from the customer service team of a high-end clothing retailer. The email indicates that the client received a $512 refund after using the vendor’s social engineering services to convince the retailer that they had purchased a package that was never delivered.
Image 1: A screenshot shared by a client of a DDW refund fraud vendor showing an email reply from the customer service team of a high-end clothing retailer. The email indicates that the client received a $512 refund after using the vendor’s social engineering services to convince the retailer that they had purchased a package that was never delivered.

Successful refund vendors have gained loyal followings within their cybercriminal communities. Indeed, satisfied customers have been known to leave positive reviews accompanied by screenshots of emails sent by impacted stores issuing refunds. After finding a reliable refund vendor, forum members will often become repeat customers, requesting refunds from a variety of companies the vendor targets.

Flashpoint analysts have also observed numerous vendors advertising fraudulent receipts for sale on the DDW. These actors are capable of producing counterfeit receipts in a variety of formats, including physical store receipts, packing slips, and digital receipts. Fake receipts typically target retailers that sell technology products, and they are often available for fewer than $10 USD per receipt. However, fake receipt vendors are often capable of targeting a variety of companies and are able to adjust their tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) in response to customer concerns and demands.

Image 2: A fake receipt vendor advertises an image of an allegedly counterfeit physical store receipt for a $201.90 entertainment/electronics purchase from a major U.S. retailer.
Image 2: A fake receipt vendor advertises an image of an allegedly counterfeit physical store receipt for a $201.90 entertainment/electronics purchase from a major U.S. retailer.

Fake receipts allow malicious actors to commit fraud without making any purchase from the targeted retailer. They also make it more difficult for retailers to trace multiple instances of fraud to the same individual. Moreover, physical receipts may be used to return stolen items in exchange for money or store credit.

Image 3: A fake receipt vendor advertises a counterfeit packing slip showing a purchase for a $370.89 computer hardware purchase from an online retailer.
Image 3: A fake receipt vendor advertises a counterfeit packing slip showing a purchase for a $370.89 computer hardware purchase from an online retailer.

Digital receipts may be used to make false claims about an online order to elicit a “refund” or “replacement” shipment from the retailer, despite never having made an actual purchase.

Flashpoint analysts discovered that several receipt vendors also offered product serial numbers to their clients as well. These serial numbers are likely used in conjunction with other tactics to obtain a refund or replacement shipment. Based on DDW chatter, Flashpoint analysts assess with a low degree of confidence that these vendors may be using serial number generators—software capable of generating valid serial numbers—in order to supply their clients. Such generators can be found in DDW forums and in some surface-web communities.

Assessment

Moving forward, Flashpoint analysts assess with a moderate degree of confidence that cybercriminals will continue to leverage faked receipts to commit fraud. Meanwhile, rising competition and transparency has led many retailers seeking to differentiate themselves in the market to offer generous customer service and flexible return policies. However, the benefits of many such policies may be outweighed by the security challenges they create.

By maintaining a robust, year-round intelligence operation that leverages insights gleaned from the DDW, retailers can keep up with emerging TTPs and fraud schemes used to target their sector, such as newly discovered loopholes or novel social engineering strategies. These insights can help retailers develop and implement comprehensive and effective anti-fraud policies and procedures.

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Flashpoint Analyst Team

The Flashpoint analyst team is composed of subject-matter experts with tradecraft skills honed through years of operating in the most austere online environments, training in elite government and corporate environments, and building and leading intelligence programs across all sectors. Our team covers more than 20 languages including Arabic, Mandarin, Farsi, Turkish, Kazakh, Spanish, French, German, Russian, Ukrainian, Italian, and Portuguese.

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