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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho leads the company’s client engagement and development team, which includes customer success, business development, strategic integrations and the FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP, Client Engagement & Development
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
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RAT Gone Rogue: Meet ARS VBS Loader

Blog
April 16, 2018

Malicious VBScript has long been a fixture of spam and phishing campaigns, but until recently its functionality has been limited to downloading malware from an attacker-controlled server and executing it on a compromised computer.

Researchers at Flashpoint have seen and analyzed a unique departure from this norm in ARS VBS Loader, a spin-off of a popular downloader called SafeLoader VBS that was sold and eventually leaked in 2015 on Russian crimeware forums.

ARS VBS Loader not only downloads and executes malicious code, but also includes a command and control application written in PHP that allows a botmaster to issue commands to a victim’s machine. This behavior likens ARS VBS Loader to a remote access Trojan (RAT), giving it behavior and capabilities rarely seen in malicious “loaders”, i.e. initial infection vector malware families used to install subsequent payloads.

Image 1: ARS VBS Loader's administrative login portal.
Image 1: ARS VBS Loader’s administrative login portal.

The new loader has been spammed out in email attachments enticing victims with lures in subject lines related to personal banking, package shipments, and toll road notifications. Should a victim interact with the attachment and launch it, analysts say numerous types of commodity malware could be installed, including the AZORult information-stealing malware. AZORult was also used in campaigns targeting more than 1,000 Magento admin panels; in those attacks, the malware was used to scrape payment card information from sites running the popular free and open source ecommerce platform.

ARS VBS Loader targets only Windows machines and supports Windows 10, according to posts to a Russian-speaking forum going back to December. Previously, another loader called FUD ASPC Loader, first advertised in May 2017, contained similar functionality but not Windows 10 support.

The loader is also likely to side-step detection by signature-based antivirus and intrusion detection systems because of the relative ease in which attackers can obfuscate VBScript, Flashpoint analysts said. Obfuscation through a variety of means allows attackers to hide malware; if the malware is obfuscated with encryption or packing, it’s exponentially more difficult for antivirus to sniff out malicious code, for example.

Once the ARS VBS Loader executes on a victim’s computer, it immediately creates a number of entries in nearly a dozen autorun locations, including registry, scheduled tasks, and the startup folder, ensuring persistence through reboots. ARS VBS Loader will connect to the attacker’s server, sending it system information such as the operating system version name, computer user name, RAM, processor and graphics card information, a randomly generated ID for infection tracking, and machine architecture information.

Image 2: ARS VBS Loader submits check in information to the C2 in GET and POST parameters.
Image 2: ARS VBS Loader submits check in information to the C2 in GET and POST parameters.

The botmaster, meanwhile, can remotely administer commands to bots through the PHP command-and-control application. Communication with the command-and-control server is carried out in plaintext over HTTP, making it easy to spot, Flashpoint analysts said.

The malicious code that runs on the victim’s machine is written entirely in VBScript and contains functionality for updating and deleting itself, and deploying plugins such as a credentials stealer, or launching application-layer denial-of-service (DoS) attacks against websites, and loading additional malware from external websites.

The most common command spotted by analysts is download, which instructs bots to download and execute malware from a supplied URL. There is also the plugin command where plugins that steal passwords or capture desktop screenshots can be pushed to compromised computers.

The DDoS command is also noteworthy because it’s a unique capability; analysts said they have not seen this command used in the wild. The command tells bots to send a specified amount of HTTP POST requests to a particular URL. Since this is a simple application layer flooding attack, it is currently unknown how successful this attack would be against targets in the wild, analysts said, adding that it would be easy to spot such traffic because the same hardcoded POST values are sent in the HTTP flood.

Image 3: Example DDoS HTTP flooding traffic from an infected bot.
Image 3: Example DDoS HTTP flooding traffic from an infected bot.

Analysts caution that users should be vigilant about not opening email attachments from unknown sources, and that it’s likely ARS VBS Loader will continue to be an effective initial infection vector for spam campaigns.

To download the indicators of compromise (IOCs) for the ARS VBS Loader, click here.

To download the Yara rule for the ARS VBS Loader, click here.

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Paul Burbage

Senior Malware Researcher

Paul is a Senior Malware Researcher at Flashpoint with over 15 years of experience in the threat intelligence and information security arena. He specializes in emerging threat research, botnet tracking, and reverse engineering malware. His passion lies in finding vulnerabilities in malware command and control infrastructure.

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Mike Mimoso

Editorial Director

Michael Mimoso brings over a decade of experience in IT security news reporting to Flashpoint. As Editorial Director, he collaborates with marketing, analyst, and leadership teams to share the company’s story. Prior to Flashpoint, Mike was as an Editor of Threatpost, where he covered security issues and cybercrime affecting businesses and end-users.
Prior to joining Threatpost, Mike was Editorial Director of the Security Media Group at TechTarget and Editor of Information Security magazine where he won several ASBPE national and regional writing awards. In addition, Information Security was a two-time finalist for national magazine of the year. He has been writing for business-to-business IT publications for 11 years, with a primary focus on information security.
Earlier in his career, Mike was an editor and reporter at several Boston-area newspapers. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Stonehill College in North Easton, Massachusetts. 

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