Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with the fastest, most comprehensive coverage of threatening activity on the internet. He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / Chief Product Officer
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Chris Camacho
Chief Revenue Officer
As Chief Revenue Officer, Chris Camacho leads the company’s global sales team, which includes solution architecture, business development, strategic integrations, partnerships, and revenue operations; he is also the architect of Flashpoint’s FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Donald Saelinger
Donald Saelinger is responsible for driving strategic and operational initiatives to accelerate Flashpoint’s growth and scale. In this role, Donald leads a broad portfolio including Marketing, Customer Success, Revenue Operations, Legal and related functions, and is focused on helping the company execute on a go-to-market approach that maximizes value to our customers. Prior to Flashpoint, Donald served as Chief Operating Officer and General Counsel of Endgame, Inc., an endpoint detection and response company acquired by Elastic N.V. in 2019, and where he led a range of teams focused on growth, scale, and legal and compliance matters. Donald also previously served as the General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer at Opower, Inc. (NYSE: OPWR), a global provider of SaaS solutions to electric and gas utilities that was acquired by Oracle, Inc. in 2016. Donald graduated from Columbia University in 2000 and received his JD from the Georgetown University Law Center in 2006.
Rob Reznick
SVP Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Tom Hofmann
SVP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
SVP Solutions Architecture
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
SVP Strategy and Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
Justin Rogers
VP Revenue Operations
Justin Rogers leads the Revenue Operations team at Flashpoint, aligning sales, marketing, partnerships, customer success, and finance across vision, planning, process, and goals. He leverages over 15 years of experience in security, strategy, product design, and implementation to drive growth, provide an end-to-end view of the customer journey, and a seamless customer experience. Recently, Justin led Marketing for Centripetal, bringing the first Threat Intelligence Gateway to market. Previously, he managed operations of a Counter IED lab electronics forensics division while forward deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Justin holds a BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of New Hampshire.
Peter Partyka
VP Engineering
Peter Partyka leads Flashpoint’s engineering teams. Peter previously worked in the quantitative hedge fund space in New York City, implementing security and administrative solutions around proprietary trading platforms, high-availability cloud deployments, and hardening of applications and infrastructure. Peter leverages more than 16 years of experience in technology specializing in application security, red-teaming, penetration testing, exploit development, as well as blue-teaming. Peter has a long track record of managing tech teams and implementing engineering security best practices. Recently Peter led Flashpoint toward GDPR and CCPA compliance and has been a key architect of Flashpoint’s robust compliance programs. Peter has taught advanced cybersecurity courses at New York University and consulted at various tech startups during his career.
Paul Farley
Paul Farley is responsible for the Asia-Pacific region of Flashpoint's international business, including Australia, Japan, and Singapore. In his role at Flashpoint, Paul is executing growth-oriented sales strategies across multiple countries and vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial. Paul has extensive experience leading regional sales for both pre-IPO growth businesses and large organizations such as RSA, EMC and DELL.
Steven Cooperman
VP Public Sector Sales
Steven Cooperman is responsible for Flashpoint’s strategy and sales growth of its public sector business. He also supports the development of a robust partner ecosystem for public sector business to deliver value added offerings and innovation focused to the mission of government. Steven has an established and diverse career in the Public Sector, holding leadership positions at a number of successful enterprise software companies and Federal System Integrators, including ServiceNow, HP, Oracle and Northrop Grumman. He holds an MA in Analytic Geography from the State University of New York - Binghamton, and received his BS in Geology from the State University - Oneonta.
Matthew Howell
VP Product
Matthew Howell leads the Product Management and Product Marketing teams for Flashpoint. He is responsible for developing a strong team that drives product adoption and user engagement through outcome based prioritization, continuous process improvement, and metrics driven development. Matthew brings a passion for diverse ideas, experience launching B2B SaaS products, building integration ecosystems, supporting five 9s SLAs, and leading distributed teams. He holds a bachelor’s degree in computer science from the University of Virginia
Glenn Lemons
Executive Director Strategic Accounts Engagement
Glenn Lemons is Executive Director, Strategic Accounts Engagement at Flashpoint. He previously served as the acting Director of Citigroup's Cyber Intelligence Center where he was responsible for analyzing and reacting to intelligence from a variety of threats. These threats ranged from fraudulent activity and attempting to defraud Citi's clients to supporting security operations for the firm's worldwide network presence. He has extensive experience working with multiple clients across the financial services, manufacturing, healthcare, and public sectors. Glenn also has more than 26 years of intelligence experience within the operational and support communities in the U.S. military and federal civilian service; seven of which focused on both defensive and offensive cyber operations. While working for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, he testified numerous times before U.S. Congressional committees and member requested open and closed sessions.
Steve Leightell
Steve started his career in Internet sales in the early 1990s and was always a top sales rep before transitioning to business development. By the early 2000s, he was the Director of Business Development at DWL, where he managed a team that built partnerships with Accenture, Oracle, Tata Consulting, Wipro, Cognizant and IBM. Steve designed the channel and strategy that ultimately culminated in the acquisition of DWL by IBM in 2005. He went on to lead a global team within IBM that was responsible for major system integrator partnerships. In 2008, he left IBM to found a niche consulting firm focused on business development for SaaS organizations. Steve holds a BA in anthropology and sociology from Carleton University in Ottawa.
Ellie Wheeler
Ellie Wheeler is a Partner at Greycroft and is based in the firm’s New York office. Prior to joining Greycroft, Ellie worked in a similar role evaluating investment opportunities at Lowercase Capital. Ellie also worked at Cisco in Corporate Development doing acquisitions, investments, and strategy within the unified communications, enterprise software, mobile, and video sectors. While at Cisco, she was involved in multiple acquisitions and investments, including PostPath, Jabber, Xobni, and Tandberg. She began her career in growth capital private equity at Summit Partners in Boston. Ellie graduated magna cum laude from Georgetown University with a BA in Psychology and holds an MBA from Harvard Business School.
Glenn McGonnigle
Glenn McGonnigle is a General Partner at TechOperators. Prior to launching TechOperators in 2008, Glenn was CEO of VistaScape Security Systems, a venture-backed provider of enterprise intelligent video surveillance software. He lead the company through its successful sale to Siemens Building Technologies. Previously, Glenn was a co-founder and senior executive of Atlanta-based Internet Security Systems (ISS) where he helped raise initial venture capital and launch the business. For 7 years, he led the business development team in developing sales channels and entering the managed security services market. During his tenure, the company grew from startup to revenues of over $225 million and was later acquired by IBM for $1.3 billion.
Brendan Hannigan
Brendan joined Polaris Partners in 2016 as an entrepreneur partner. In this role, he focuses on funding and founding companies in the technology sector with a concentration in cloud, analytics, and cybersecurity. Brendan is a co-founder of Sonrai Security and chairman of Twistlock, both Polaris investments. He also currently serves on the board of Bitsight Technologies and Flashpoint. A 25 year technology industry veteran, Brendan was most recently the general manager of IBM Security. Under Brendan’s leadership, IBM Security grew significantly faster than the overall security market to become the number one enterprise security provider in the world with almost $2B of annual revenue.
Matt Devost
Currently, Devost serves as CEO & Co-Founder of OODA LLC as well as a review board member for Black Hat. In 2010, he co-founded the cybersecurity consultancy FusionX LLC which was acquired by Accenture in August 2015, where he went on to lead Accenture's Global Cyber Defense practice. Devost also founded the Terrorism Research Center in 1996 where he served as President and CEO until November 2008 and held founding or leadership roles at iDefense, iSIGHT Partners, Total Intel, SDI, Tulco Holdings, and Technical Defense.

Apache Tomcat Vulnerability “Ghostcat” Attracting Threat Actor Attention

March 20, 2020

By Cheng Lu and Steven Ouellette

Flashpoint analysts observed that a vulnerability identified as CVE-2020-1938 has been attracting threat actor attention since its public disclosure on February 20, 2020. Originally discovered by Chinese security firm Chaitin Technologies, the vulnerability was reported to the Chinese National Vulnerability Database (CNVD) on January 6, 2020, over a month prior to its public disclosure. Identified by the Chinese National Vulnerability Database as CNVD-2020-10487 and known as the “Ghostcat,” the vulnerability is also identified as CVE-2020-1938. It affects a large range of Tomcat versions from its 7.0, 8.5, and 9.0 branches.

The vulnerability is described as having the capability for remote code execution on a popular web server without authentication and user interaction, which means it may be an ideal target for exploitation. Flashpoint analysts have analyzed the vulnerability and verified the publicly available proof-of-concept (PoC) code.

Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs)
Apache Tomcat is a lightweight HTTP web server that supports a variety of Java-based web technologies, such as Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages. Originally released in 1999, Tomcat has been part of the open-source Apache Software Foundation collection since 2002 in its 4.1 release.

By default, Apache Tomcat implements and exposes the Apache JServ Protocol (AJP) interface. The AJP binary protocol was originally developed in 1997 and was part of Tomcat when it was donated to the Apache Software Foundation. With one of two connectors, it allows Tomcat servlet container Catalina to communicate and interact through a network connection. Similar to Tomcat’s HTTP connector, the AJP connector handles inbound requests and passes to Catalina. Catalina then passes the request to the proper web application and receives the dynamically generated content. This content is then sent back over the network by the AJP connector as the response to the request. Unlike the HTTP connector, the AJP connector is a highly trusted protocol connector that allows for extended functionalities. It should not be exposed over an untrusted network, as it may be leveraged to gain complete access to the application server.

ghostcat default Tomcat installation
Under a default Tomcat installation on Windows 10, multiple ports are exposed. Among them are Tomcat’s HTTP port, on 8080, as well as the AJP port, on 8009. The vulnerability is caused by the default exposure of the AJP connector port.

The vulnerability is caused by the improper exposure of the AJP connector. The AJP connector is considered to have a higher trust level and is intended to be used between servers, such as communications between HTTP and Tomcat, so it is expected to be exposed only internally. For communications over the external network with untrusted users, the HTTP connector, which has lower trust, is exposed.

However, on default installations, the AJP connector is enabled and exposed to the external network through TCP port 8009. This allows arbitrary users to interact with the Tomcat server through the AJP connector and gain additional access to the server. Through the AJP connector, an attacker can retrieve arbitrary files from Tomcat’s web root, including the files residing within the “WEB-INF” and “META-INF” directories through the “ServletContext.getResourceAsStream()” function. Additionally, arbitrary files within the web application on the vulnerable Tomcat server can be processed as a JSP page through the AJP connector. On vulnerable Tomcat servers that allow file uploads, if an attacker uploads a file and then forces the Tomcat server to process the file via the AJP connector, this can lead to arbitrary code execution under the privileged context of the vulnerable process.

At the time of this writing, multiple PoC code has been made public via various GitHub repositories. The PoC code, mostly written in Python or in the form of Java jar containers, is capable of leveraging the vulnerability to retrieve arbitrary files from a vulnerable Tomcat server.

Flashpoint analysts have obtained the publicly available PoC code and verified them against Tomcat 8.5.32 running on Windows 10. The verified PoC code, written in Python, is capable of creating and sending a well-formed AJP request to a specified IP address. When the request is sent with a valid file path and name, the vulnerable server returns the file as a stream back to the PoC code and the file is displayed on the attacker’s screen, as the result of the PoC execution. Testing has shown that the PoC code can retrieve arbitrary files, including JSP source files that are inaccessible via the HTTP connector, with high reliability. Where the requested file is not a plaintext file, the output stream needs to be saved and opened with the appropriate application.

Flashpoint analysts have not tested other branches and versions of Tomcat, but they expect the PoC code should function without any issues against other vulnerable Tomcat versions. This is because the implementation of the AJP connector within the code shares a high degree of similarity across versions.
ghostcat JSP source code as shown on the Tomcat server
The JSP source code as shown on the Tomcat server. This code should not be accessible over the network under normal operating conditions.

Although under certain circumstances remote code execution is achievable, it is not easy. To accomplish remote code execution, an attacker would need to find a web application that accepts file uploads that is running on a vulnerable Tomcat server. Further, as of this writing, the publicly available PoC code is not implemented to support execution of JSP files on a vulnerable server. However, such capability can be implemented on the basis of the PoC code with relative ease.

Flashpoint analysts assess with high confidence that this vulnerability is likely to pose a high impact potential. Due to the nature of the vulnerability, it can be leveraged without any user interactions and with high reliability, with low chance of causing the vulnerable server to crash. Under certain circumstances, where a web application allows for file upload, the vulnerability may be leveraged to execute arbitrary code under the privileged context of the vulnerable Tomcat process. However, as of this writing, the publicly available PoC code can only be leveraged to retrieve files on a vulnerable server. Although implementing code execution exploit from the PoC code should be relatively straightforward, the file upload requirement can only be implemented by the web application developer, rather than the attacker. For this reason, only a portion of the vulnerable Tomcat servers may suffer the code execution impact from this vulnerability.

Publicly available PoC and exploit code make the exploitation of this vulnerability more accessible to threat actors of all skill levels. The mass scan activities could identify internet-facing instances of Tomcat susceptible to attacks. Therefore, Flashpoint analysts assess with moderate confidence that this vulnerability may see active exploitation attempts in the coming days in a more targeted fashion.

The Apache Software Foundation released Tomcat versions 7.0.100, 8.5.51, and 9.0.31 on February 14, 2020, to address this vulnerability and two lower-impact vulnerabilities. Flashpoint has tested the publicly available PoC code against Tomcat version 8.5.51 and found that the new version can fully mitigate against exploitation attempts.

Alternatively, Tomcat instances that do not require the use of AJP connectors can completely mitigate against all exploitation attempts by disabling the AJP connector. This can be accomplished by modifying Tomcat’s configurations. In cases where AJP connectors are in use, users should consider exposing the connector only in the trusted network segment, rather than exposing it to the entire network, to reduce attack surface.

The file upload requirement is a mitigating factor against this vulnerability, as this feature is not available by default. Only Tomcat-running web applications that allow for file upload are susceptible to remote code execution attacks. Further, to retrieve files from the vulnerable server, an attacker would need to know the file names, which can complicate the exploitation process.

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