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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho partners with Flashpoint’s executive team to develop, communicate, and execute strategic initiatives pertaining to Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP Customer Success
Jake Wells leads the company’s customer success team, serving as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
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Flashpoint Introduces Innovative Approach for Use Case-Driven Intelligence

When Vulnerabilities Travel Downstream

Cybercrime
October 7, 2016

CVEs Assigned to Upstream Devices Exploited by Mirai IoT Botnet

While investigating the recent large-scale DDoS attacks against targets including Krebs On Security and OVH, Flashpoint identified the primary manufacturer of the devices that utilize the default username and password combination known as root and xc3511, respectively. These types of credentials exist all across the Internet and are commonly used via Telnet to access numerous types of DVRs. In fact, countless DVR manufacturers buy parts preloaded with Linux and rudimentary management software from a company called XiongMai Technologies, located in Hangzhou, China. This company sells white-labeled DVR, NVR and IP Camera boards and software to downstream vendors who then use it in their own products. Altogether, over five-hundred thousand devices on public IPs around the world appear susceptible to this vulnerability.

The default login page of Xiongmai Technologies “Netsurveillance” and “CMS” software. The download link for the older CMS binary is in the config.js file.
Image 1: The default login page of Xiongmai Technologies “Netsurveillance” and “CMS” software. The download link for the older CMS binary is in the config.js file.

Why are default credentials such a bad thing?

Default credentials pose little threat when a device is not accessible from the Internet. However, when combined with other defaults, such as web interfaces or a remote login services like Telnet or SSH, default credentials may pose a great risk to a device. In this case, the default credentials can be used to “Telnet” to the device. This tactic turns vulnerable devices into “bots” in a botnet. These credentials have been targeted for quite some time, but on a significantly smaller scale than that of the Mirai Botnet. In fact, the majority of media coverage surrounding Mirai has outed Dahua products as a primary source of compromised devices. However, Flashpoint’s analysis on the attack data shows that while Dahua devices are indeed being compromised, a very large percentage of these  IP involved in the DDoS attacks were hosting XiongMai Technologies-based products. The Dahua devices were identified early because of their distinctive interface and recent use in other botnets. Utilizing the “Low Impact Identification Tool” or LIFT, Flashpoint was able to identify a large number of these devices in the attack data provided.

The issue with these particular devices is that a user cannot feasibly change this password. The password is hardcoded into the firmware, and the tools necessary to disable it are not present. Even worse, the web interface is not aware that these credentials even exist. Further exacerbating the issue, the Telnet service is also hardcoded into /etc/init.d/rcS (the primary service startup script), which is not easy to edit. The combination of the default service and hard-coded credentials has led to the assignment of CVE-2016-1000245 by the Distributed Weakness Filing Project.

Web Authentication Vulnerabilities Uncovered

During the investigation, Flashpoint identified an additional vulnerability. There is a trivial web authentication bypass present on all devices running XiongMai Technologies “CMS” or “NetSurveillance” software. The login URL for the device, http://<IP_address_of_device>/Login.htm, prompts for a username and password. Once the user logs in, the URL does not change but instead loads a second page: DVR.htm. While researching CVE-2016-1000245, Flashpoint identified a vulnerability that the web authentication can be bypassed by navigating to DVR.htm prior to login. This vulnerability has been assigned CVE-2016-1000246. It should be noted, both vulnerabilities appear in the same devices. Any DVR, NVR or Camera running the web software “uc-httpd”, especially version 1.0.0 is potentially vulnerable. Out of those, any that have the “Expires: 0” field in their server header are vulnerable to both.

Utilizing Shodan, a search engine for online devices, the number of affected devices becomes apparent. As of September 23, the height of the attacks, there are over 560,000 devices running uc-httpd web server software. However, according to a September 28 search with the addition of “Expires: 0”, nearly 470,000 devices have been confirmed vulnerable to both CVEs. Therefore, out of all uc-httpd 1.0.0 devices in the world as of October 6, over 515,000 are vulnerable.

Final Notes

Large-scale DDoS attacks can potentially cause widespread negative effects for both IoT manufacturers and retailers. As such, IoT manufacturers are encouraged to consider security in the early stages of product development to help proactively reduce their risk. Since default passwords with default services contributed to device vulnerabilities during recent attacks, manufacturers may want to adjust these specifications in future product designs. Regarding IoT retailers, the primary concern is the potential damage to brand reputation following an attack. In order to help mitigate this risk, retailers are encouraged to work closely with manufacturers to establish and uphold security standards for IoT devices. Flashpoint’s observations following these recent attacks underscore the importance of IoT vulnerability risk awareness for both retailers and manufacturers.

The complete technical advisory is available here: https://www.flashpoint-intel.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Technical-Advisory.pdf

Flashpoint Intelligence Brief

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