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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho leads the company’s client engagement and development team, which includes customer success, business development, strategic integrations and the FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP, Client Engagement & Development
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
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Insider Threats: “The Shadow Brokers” Likely Did Not Hack the NSA

Cybercrime
December 19, 2016

UPDATED 12/20/2016 3:45 PM ET 

Key Takeaways

• Based on the data released in the most recent dump by the threat actor known as “The Shadow Brokers,” Flashpoint assesses with medium confidence that the stolen information was likely obtained from a rogue insider. Flashpoint is uncertain of how these documents were exfiltrated, but they appear to have been copied from an internal system or code repository and not directly accessed through external remote access or discovered on any external staging server.

• The tools offered for sale in the dump contain documentation scripts from 2005-2013, centered around Linux and Unix-based Computer Network Exploitation (CNE) operations.

• The Shadow Brokers modified the data and timestamps in an attempt to hinder analysis by security researchers. Flashpoint assesses with moderate confidence that the stolen documents were likely obtained in July 2013, but it is unclear why the exploits only became available for sale in 2016.

• Technical analysis of the available files calls into question the true motivation of The Shadow Brokers. If The Shadow Brokers were trying to make a profit, the exploits would have been offered shortly after July 2013, when the information would have been most valuable.

Background

The threat actor known as “The Shadow Brokers,” which is currently offering NSA exploits for sale, may have inadvertently revealed the type of access the actor had, as well as the efforts it made to point analysts in the wrong direction. The actor’s latest release, for sale on ZeroNet, points towards an insider with access to a code repository, as opposed to poor operational security by NSA network operators who left exploits on a staging server.

On December 14, 2016, a Medium post titled “Are the Shadow Brokers selling NSA tools on ZeroNet?” was published by an actor using the alias “Boceffus Cleetus.” Boceffus Cleetus is a new alias, which did not exist prior to December 2016. In the post, Boceffus Cleetus claimed that the actor is trying to sell more NSA tools, with the entire dump offered for 1,000 Bitcoin (approximately $800,000 USD). Many of the tools are being sold individually for between 10 to 100 Bitcoin (approximately $8,000 – $80,000 USD). Boceffus Cleetus also theorizes that the leaks are connected to inter-agency conflicts between the CIA and the NSA. Flashpoint is unable to confirm these claims, but the information does appear to derive from a source with direct access to the exploit repository.

Based on Flashpoint’s analysis of the recent data release, Flashpoint assesses with medium confidence that the stolen information was likely obtained from a rogue insider. Flashpoint is uncertain of how these documents were exfiltrated, but they appear to have been copied from an internal system or code repository and not directly accessed through external remote access or discovered on any external staging server.

Assessment

In the auction_file folder released in the dump, The Shadow Brokers provided screenshots as proof that the data is authentic. A screenshot within the folder revealed that all the dates had been modified within seconds of one another. Based on the folder icons, the screenshots were taken inside a Linux system; the attacker may have taken the screenshots in a clean Virtual Machine (VM) for protection purposes. In Image 1, it is apparent that the attacker has the technical ability to modify timestamps in Linux, which can be accomplished with the “touch -d” command.

Image 1: The Shadow Brokers provided a screenshot showing the tools and revealing the group’s usage of a Linux-based operating system.
Image 1: The Shadow Brokers provided a screenshot showing the tools and revealing the group’s usage of a Linux-based operating system.

The Shadow Brokers included extra files in the listing as proof of the authenticity of the data. Several text files are listed, which contain a file listing and the file sizes of the data.

Image 2: Tree listing of the tools reveals various .COMMON files.
Image 2: Tree listing of the tools reveals various .COMMON files.

Analysis of the files reveals that these are instructions on how to use many of the tools offered for sale in the release.

Image 3: The user[.]tool[.]cursehappy[.]COMMON file appears to be a detailed instruction document.
Image 3: The user[.]tool[.]cursehappy[.]COMMON file appears to be a detailed instruction document.

Flashpoint analysis of the files reveals the likely timeframe of the stolen data to be mid-2013. In Image 4, ELATEDMONKEY is a local privilege escalation exploit for cPanel, with one of the versions being 11.24.4. According to the cPanel website, this version was published December 16, 2008.

Image 4: ELATEDMONKEY appears to be an exploit targeting legacy code on older systems.
Image 4: ELATEDMONKEY appears to be an exploit targeting legacy code on older systems.

The file user[.]tool[.]englandbogy[.]COMMON follows a specific format, targeting the Xorg server. The documentation mentions a 2006 version of Mandrake, which may reveal further information about the data. Xorg 6.9 was released at the end of 2005.

Image 5: Screenshot from the file user[.]tool[.]englandbogy[.]COMMON, identifying exploits against Xorg 6.9, which was released at the end of 2005.
Image 5: Screenshot from the file user[.]tool[.]englandbogy[.]COMMON, identifying exploits against Xorg 6.9, which was released at the end of 2005.

Further analysis of the files reveals recommendations on clearing logs and pivoting to networks, as well as certain actions which would leave tracks. In much of the documentation, the attackers give “how-to” tips on exploiting networks, allowing for easy copying and pasting of instructions. In Image 6, “mx” can be used in vi as a marker to jump back to this section. With the way the documentation is written, the commands are meant to be copied and pasted from one window to another.

Image 6: Setup variables for mx.
Image 6: Setup variables for mx.

Images 3, 4, and 5 each have a certain format, suggesting an internal documentation template used for much of these attacks. In some of the files, there are dates appended to the top, dating back to the 2011 timeframe. In Image 7, one of the files appears to be modified differently than the other files.

Image 7: Date appended to the top of the file.
Image 7: Date appended to the top of the file.

In the file “stoicversions[.]levels,” different files are listed by dates. The most recent date found in the dump is July 16, 2013, which may indicate the most recent access time of the dump.

Image 8: The most recent date in the dump.
Image 8: The most recent date in the dump.

In this dump, much of the released data ties back to Linux-based tools, techniques, and procedures. Based on the the amount of information provided as well as implants only targeting Linux and UNIX systems, The Shadow Brokers more than likely obtained the stolen information through a rogue insider; the documents appear to have been copied from an internal system or code repository and not directly accessed through external remote access or discovered on any external staging server.

Insiders with access to sensitive information can cause extensive damage, as Edward Snowden proved in June 2013. While the timeline of events shows that this is not directly related to Snowden, the close proximity of events raises the question if there were multiple insiders acting independently during 2013. Technical analysis of the available files calls into question the true motivation of The Shadow Brokers. If The Shadow Brokers were trying to make a profit, the exploits would have been offered shortly after July 2013, when the information would have been most valuable.

Sources:

• https://medium.com/@CleetusBocefus/are-the-shadow-brokers-selling-nsa-tools-on-zeronet-6c335891d62a#.i9ohk7oxl

• https://medium.com/@CleetusBocefus/are-the-shadow-brokers-selling-nsa-tools-on-zeronet-6c335891d62a#.f9xfr6rjt

• https://bit.no.com:43110/theshadowbrokers.bit

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