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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho leads the company’s client engagement and development team, which includes customer success, business development, strategic integrations and the FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP, Client Engagement & Development
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
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Flashpoint and Talos Analyze the Curious Case of the flokibot Connector

Cybercrime
December 7, 2016

Key Takeaways

• In the financial cybercrime landscape, we see a continuous progression of the malware known as “Floki Bot,” which has been marketed by the actor “flokibot” since September 2016.

• Language is not a barrier: though experience suggests that many cybercriminals tend to stay within their language groups, those with a high level of motivation (like flokibot) can use online language tools to participate in foreign online communities nearly as effectively as native speakers.

• Cybercriminals learn quickly: flokibot’s introduction to and participation in illicit activity did not take place over many years. Within as short a time as two months, flokibot was able to hold their own with seasoned cybercriminals, becoming an embedded member of their communities.

• With the leaked ZeuS source code and the multiplication of tutorials and other learning materials in cybercrime communities, the time required to attain a high level of skill and sophistication has been continuously reduced.

• As criminals share information to defeat protections, we should be sharing it as well with our community to defeat threats.

• Our joint partnership with Cisco Talos facilitated a proactive approach to mitigation and disruption of the threat, leveraging our technical and intelligence capabilities. While Talos developed early signature detection that allows early identification and mitigation of this threat, Flashpoint provided actor and campaign intelligence observed from the Deep & Dark Web.

Background

A few months ago, Flashpoint analysts became interested in a Brazilian actor who uses the pseudonym “flokibot.” This actor is remarkable for a number of reasons, in particular their presence in a number of top-tier underground communities across a range of languages. The actor is perhaps most interesting, however, because of their activity in the development and maturing of a Trojan known as “Floki Bot,” which was offered for $1,000 USD in Bitcoins. By obtaining intelligence from the Deep & Dark Web (DDW) and in coordination with Talos, Flashpoint monitored malware campaigns associated with flokibot.

In this report, we detail recent Flashpoint research related to the Brazilian “connector,” flokibot. The term “connector” is used to describe the overlap between criminal communities across disparate language forums. Connectors are individuals who interact on forums that are maintained outside of their country of residence and import knowledge and tools into their native communities.

While criminal actors continue to communicate through a number of mediums, including social media, IRC, and Telegram, this report focuses on analysis of the campaigns and social networks of this Portuguese-speaking actor on the DDW. Specifically, flokibot reaches across language barriers into communities in which the dominant language is English or Russian.

Floki Bot Progression on the Deep & Dark Web

Malware developers continually adapt their technology to bypass detection and controls. These new malware strains are often developed by actors operating in the DDW before being released into the wild without forewarning, leaving companies flat-footed and reactive.

Image 1: Pattern of life analysis for underground chatter referencing Floki Bot reveals consistent interest in this malware variant across various cybercrime communities.
Image 1: Pattern of life analysis for underground chatter referencing Floki Bot reveals consistent interest in this malware variant across various cybercrime communities.

In our previous blog entitled “Multi-Purpose “Floki Bot” Emerges as New Malware Kit”, we noted that this malware is based on publicly-available ZeuS 2.0.8.9 source code, to which flokibot has made several notable modifications. Besides the dropper method, Floki Bot also employs a different network protocol than ZeuS that allows it to avoid detection by Deep Packet Inspection (DPI).

Brazilian Actor-Connector flokibot

Beyond the unique intelligence obtained by Flashpoint analysts and the campaign targeting Brazil, flokibot, a Portuguese-speaking member of English and Russian-language communities, was identified by several markers as very likely to be Brazilian:

• Use of the Portuguese language within the actor’s communications
• Targeting computers with the default language set to Portuguese
• Targeting Brazilian domains or IP ranges
• Targeting computers with the default timezone set to Brazil UTC -03:00
• Other unique intelligence obtained by Flashpoint analysts

Image 2: Pattern of life analysis for flokibot, which indicates that the actor is active within the Brazil UTC -03:00 timezone, and shows diminished activity on the weekend, possibly indicating that marketing Floki Bot is the actor’s full time employment and/or source of income.
Image 2: Pattern of life analysis for flokibot, which indicates that the actor is active within the Brazil UTC -03:00 timezone, and shows diminished activity on the weekend, possibly indicating that marketing Floki Bot is the actor’s full time employment and/or source of income.

Brazil-Russian Underground Cooperation: Case of flokibot

The phenomenon of connectors has been readily apparent in English and Russian-language communities, wherein Portuguese-speaking actors have likewise maintained a presence in order to learn and strengthen their technical skills and criminal targeting.

While Brazilian cybercriminals are not typically as technically sophisticated as their Russian counterparts, they will often solicit new forms of malware (to include point of sale [PoS] ransomware and banking Trojans), or offer their own services. It appears that a presence on Russian DDW communities may be a likely factor in flokibot’s progression.

PoS Malware: Technical Competency

For connectors like flokibot, reaching across language barriers into predominantly English- and Russian-language communities enables them to to advance criminal schemes through new markets: it is not particularly difficult or expensive for botnet newcomers in short time to build their own botnets leveraging Floki Bot and start attacking corporate networks.

Image 3: Floki Bot’s admin panel reveals that it is comprised of 225 infected bots and that it is allegedly responsible for a total of 1,375 dumps.
Image 3: Floki Bot’s admin panel reveals that it is comprised of 225 infected bots and that it is allegedly responsible for a total of 1,375 dumps.

One way in which flokibot’s technical competency has evolved is in the actor’s use of hooking methods to capture track data from PoS devices. While the malware originates from the well-known ZeuS 2.0.8.9 source code, flokibot adds this hooking method to grab track data from memory thereby extending the malware operations beyond regular banking trojan functionality making it more potent and versatile.

Collaboration with Talos

Our partners at Talos performed technical analysis and provided decrypts that might assist in dumping the configuration parameters used by flokibot samples, as well as the flokibot payload itself.

For any information related to Yara rulesets for the Floki Bot that might assist with malware detection and network defense purposes, please contact Flashpoint.

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