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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho leads the company’s sales and client engagement & development teams, which also includes customer success, solution architecture, business development, strategic integrations, and the FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Partnerships and U.S. Public Sector
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP, Client Engagement & Development and Solution Architecture
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
Justin Rogers
VP Revenue Operations
Justin Rogers leads the Revenue Operations team at Flashpoint, aligning marketing, sales, partnerships, and customer success across vision, planning, process, and goals. He leverages over 15 years of experience in security, strategy, product design, and implementation to drive growth, provide an end-to-end view of the customer journey, and a seamless customer experience. Recently, Justin led Marketing for Centripetal, bringing the first Threat Intelligence Gateway to market. Previously, he managed operations of a Counter IED lab electronics forensics division while forward deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Justin holds a BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of New Hampshire.
Glenn Lemons
Executive Director of Customer Success
Glenn Lemons is a Executive Director of Customer Success at Flashpoint. He previously served as the acting Director of Citigroup's Cyber Intelligence Center where he was responsible for analyzing and reacting to intelligence from a variety of threats. These threats ranged from fraudulent activity and attempting to defraud Citi's clients to supporting security operations for the firm's worldwide network presence. He has extensive experience working with multiple clients across the financial services, manufacturing, healthcare, and public sectors. Glenn also has more than 26 years of intelligence experience within the operational and support communities in the U.S. military and federal civilian service; seven of which focused on both defensive and offensive cyber operations. While working for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, he testified numerous times before U.S. Congressional committees and member requested open and closed sessions.
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Steve Leightell
Steve started his career in Internet sales in the early 1990s and was always a top sales rep before transitioning to business development. By the early 2000s, he was the Director of Business Development at DWL, where he managed a team that built partnerships with Accenture, Oracle, Tata Consulting, Wipro, Cognizant and IBM. Steve designed the channel and strategy that ultimately culminated in the acquisition of DWL by IBM in 2005. He went on to lead a global team within IBM that was responsible for major system integrator partnerships. In 2008, he left IBM to found a niche consulting firm focused on business development for SaaS organizations. Steve holds a BA in anthropology and sociology from Carleton University in Ottawa.
Ellie Wheeler
Ellie Wheeler is a Partner at Greycroft and is based in the firm’s New York office. Prior to joining Greycroft, Ellie worked in a similar role evaluating investment opportunities at Lowercase Capital. Ellie also worked at Cisco in Corporate Development doing acquisitions, investments, and strategy within the unified communications, enterprise software, mobile, and video sectors. While at Cisco, she was involved in multiple acquisitions and investments, including PostPath, Jabber, Xobni, and Tandberg. She began her career in growth capital private equity at Summit Partners in Boston. Ellie graduated magna cum laude from Georgetown University with a BA in Psychology and holds an MBA from Harvard Business School.
Glenn McGonnigle
Glenn McGonnigle is a General Partner at TechOperators. Prior to launching TechOperators in 2008, Glenn was CEO of VistaScape Security Systems, a venture-backed provider of enterprise intelligent video surveillance software. He lead the company through its successful sale to Siemens Building Technologies. Previously, Glenn was a co-founder and senior executive of Atlanta-based Internet Security Systems (ISS) where he helped raise initial venture capital and launch the business. For 7 years, he led the business development team in developing sales channels and entering the managed security services market. During his tenure, the company grew from startup to revenues of over $225 million and was later acquired by IBM for $1.3 billion.
Peter George
Peter George has an established track record of building companies that deliver sustained growth and profits and in identifying critical worldwide partnership opportunities that strategically expand market share. Prior to becoming President and CEO of Fidelis Security Systems in 2008, Mr. George spent the last seven years as President and CEO of Crossbeam Systems, the market leader in the high-end segment of the Unified Threat Management market, where he took the company from being a pre-revenue start-up to over $50 million in revenue. Previously, he was President of Nortel Networks Enterprise Business in Europe, Middle-East, and Africa, responsible for managing more than 5,000 employees and $2 billion in revenue. Mr. George came to Nortel via their 1998 acquisition of Bay Networks where he was serving as vice president of European operations. During his tenure at Wellfleet and Bay, he played key sales executive roles in New England and in Europe. Prior to joining Wellfleet, Mr. George served as the Northeast regional manager and GM of Canada at 3Com Corporation, and also held senior management positions at Ungerman Bass. He received his BA from the College of the Holy Cross, and has done graduate studies at Harvard and Oxford University.
Brendan Hannigan
Brendan joined Polaris Partners in 2016 as an entrepreneur partner. In this role, he focuses on funding and founding companies in the technology sector with a concentration in cloud, analytics, and cybersecurity. Brendan is a co-founder of Sonrai Security and chairman of Twistlock, both Polaris investments. He also currently serves on the board of Bitsight Technologies and Flashpoint. A 25 year technology industry veteran, Brendan was most recently the general manager of IBM Security. Under Brendan’s leadership, IBM Security grew significantly faster than the overall security market to become the number one enterprise security provider in the world with almost $2B of annual revenue.
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Flashpoint and Talos Analyze the Curious Case of the flokibot Connector

Cybercrime
December 7, 2016

Key Takeaways

• In the financial cybercrime landscape, we see a continuous progression of the malware known as “Floki Bot,” which has been marketed by the actor “flokibot” since September 2016.

• Language is not a barrier: though experience suggests that many cybercriminals tend to stay within their language groups, those with a high level of motivation (like flokibot) can use online language tools to participate in foreign online communities nearly as effectively as native speakers.

• Cybercriminals learn quickly: flokibot’s introduction to and participation in illicit activity did not take place over many years. Within as short a time as two months, flokibot was able to hold their own with seasoned cybercriminals, becoming an embedded member of their communities.

• With the leaked ZeuS source code and the multiplication of tutorials and other learning materials in cybercrime communities, the time required to attain a high level of skill and sophistication has been continuously reduced.

• As criminals share information to defeat protections, we should be sharing it as well with our community to defeat threats.

• Our joint partnership with Cisco Talos facilitated a proactive approach to mitigation and disruption of the threat, leveraging our technical and intelligence capabilities. While Talos developed early signature detection that allows early identification and mitigation of this threat, Flashpoint provided actor and campaign intelligence observed from the Deep & Dark Web.

Background

A few months ago, Flashpoint analysts became interested in a Brazilian actor who uses the pseudonym “flokibot.” This actor is remarkable for a number of reasons, in particular their presence in a number of top-tier underground communities across a range of languages. The actor is perhaps most interesting, however, because of their activity in the development and maturing of a Trojan known as “Floki Bot,” which was offered for $1,000 USD in Bitcoins. By obtaining intelligence from the Deep & Dark Web (DDW) and in coordination with Talos, Flashpoint monitored malware campaigns associated with flokibot.

In this report, we detail recent Flashpoint research related to the Brazilian “connector,” flokibot. The term “connector” is used to describe the overlap between criminal communities across disparate language forums. Connectors are individuals who interact on forums that are maintained outside of their country of residence and import knowledge and tools into their native communities.

While criminal actors continue to communicate through a number of mediums, including social media, IRC, and Telegram, this report focuses on analysis of the campaigns and social networks of this Portuguese-speaking actor on the DDW. Specifically, flokibot reaches across language barriers into communities in which the dominant language is English or Russian.

Floki Bot Progression on the Deep & Dark Web

Malware developers continually adapt their technology to bypass detection and controls. These new malware strains are often developed by actors operating in the DDW before being released into the wild without forewarning, leaving companies flat-footed and reactive.

Image 1: Pattern of life analysis for underground chatter referencing Floki Bot reveals consistent interest in this malware variant across various cybercrime communities.
Image 1: Pattern of life analysis for underground chatter referencing Floki Bot reveals consistent interest in this malware variant across various cybercrime communities.

In our previous blog entitled “Multi-Purpose “Floki Bot” Emerges as New Malware Kit”, we noted that this malware is based on publicly-available ZeuS 2.0.8.9 source code, to which flokibot has made several notable modifications. Besides the dropper method, Floki Bot also employs a different network protocol than ZeuS that allows it to avoid detection by Deep Packet Inspection (DPI).

Brazilian Actor-Connector flokibot

Beyond the unique intelligence obtained by Flashpoint analysts and the campaign targeting Brazil, flokibot, a Portuguese-speaking member of English and Russian-language communities, was identified by several markers as very likely to be Brazilian:

• Use of the Portuguese language within the actor’s communications
• Targeting computers with the default language set to Portuguese
• Targeting Brazilian domains or IP ranges
• Targeting computers with the default timezone set to Brazil UTC -03:00
• Other unique intelligence obtained by Flashpoint analysts

Image 2: Pattern of life analysis for flokibot, which indicates that the actor is active within the Brazil UTC -03:00 timezone, and shows diminished activity on the weekend, possibly indicating that marketing Floki Bot is the actor’s full time employment and/or source of income.
Image 2: Pattern of life analysis for flokibot, which indicates that the actor is active within the Brazil UTC -03:00 timezone, and shows diminished activity on the weekend, possibly indicating that marketing Floki Bot is the actor’s full time employment and/or source of income.

Brazil-Russian Underground Cooperation: Case of flokibot

The phenomenon of connectors has been readily apparent in English and Russian-language communities, wherein Portuguese-speaking actors have likewise maintained a presence in order to learn and strengthen their technical skills and criminal targeting.

While Brazilian cybercriminals are not typically as technically sophisticated as their Russian counterparts, they will often solicit new forms of malware (to include point of sale [PoS] ransomware and banking Trojans), or offer their own services. It appears that a presence on Russian DDW communities may be a likely factor in flokibot’s progression.

PoS Malware: Technical Competency

For connectors like flokibot, reaching across language barriers into predominantly English- and Russian-language communities enables them to to advance criminal schemes through new markets: it is not particularly difficult or expensive for botnet newcomers in short time to build their own botnets leveraging Floki Bot and start attacking corporate networks.

Image 3: Floki Bot’s admin panel reveals that it is comprised of 225 infected bots and that it is allegedly responsible for a total of 1,375 dumps.
Image 3: Floki Bot’s admin panel reveals that it is comprised of 225 infected bots and that it is allegedly responsible for a total of 1,375 dumps.

One way in which flokibot’s technical competency has evolved is in the actor’s use of hooking methods to capture track data from PoS devices. While the malware originates from the well-known ZeuS 2.0.8.9 source code, flokibot adds this hooking method to grab track data from memory thereby extending the malware operations beyond regular banking trojan functionality making it more potent and versatile.

Collaboration with Talos

Our partners at Talos performed technical analysis and provided decrypts that might assist in dumping the configuration parameters used by flokibot samples, as well as the flokibot payload itself.

For any information related to Yara rulesets for the Floki Bot that might assist with malware detection and network defense purposes, please contact Flashpoint.

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