Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho leads the company’s client engagement and development team, which includes customer success, business development, strategic integrations and the FPCollab sharing community. With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Rob Reznick
VP of Finance and Corporate Development
Rob Reznick leads the finance, accounting, and corporate development teams at Flashpoint. Rob previously served as Director of Finance & Accounting for 1010data (acquired by Advance/Newhouse), and Director of Finance for Financial Guard (acquired by Legg Mason) after prior work in forensic accounting and dispute consulting. Mr. Reznick is a Certified Public Accountant and holds an MBA and MAcc from the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University, and a BBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP, Client Engagement & Development
Jake Wells leads strategic integrations and information sharing as part of the client engagement & development team, which serves as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.
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BEC Campaigns Target Organizations Across Sectors Using Credential Phishing

August 23, 2017

In general, business email compromise (BEC) scams are widely viewed as a type of cybercrime that necessitates relatively minimal technical ability. Despite this, analysts industry-wide have observed BEC operators progressing from simple schemes such as 419 and fake lottery scams – in which unwitting victims are duped into sending payments to fraudsters after being promised large sums – towards experimenting with malware and creating sophisticated networks in order to quickly and reliably move money from one account to another.

Through source intelligence, Flashpoint identified a recent credential phishing campaign that had a low detection rate due to its simplicity; the campaign relied on malicious PDF files containing embedded links that redirected potential victims to credential-harvesting phishing sites.

Threat actors sent seventy-three malicious PDFs in credential phishing campaigns between March 28, 2017 and August 8, 2017. These malicious PDFs targeted a range of verticals, including universities, software and technology companies, retailers, engineering organizations, real estate firms, and churches, with the goal of harvesting user credentials.

Of the seventy-three files identified, analysts were able to identify seventy unique Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs); many of these overlapped based on domains. Attackers used twenty-nine different domains across these documents.

Image 1: A sample of the domains utilized by the actors across campaigns.
Image 1: A sample of the domains utilized by the actors across campaigns.

A potential victim of this phishing campaign would receive a malicious PDF containing a malicious link. Upon opening the PDF, the potential victim would be presented with a prompt to view a secure online document; when clicked, this prompt would redirect the victim to a phishing website to input their login credentials.

Image 2: Upon opening the malicious PDF, a potential victim sees a prompt to access a secure online document, which directs them to a phishing page.
Image 2: Upon opening the malicious PDF, a potential victim sees a prompt to access a secure online document, which directs them to a phishing page.

Once on the phishing page, the potential victim is presented with several options to “download” the file and is asked for login credentials for their organization. Once a victim enters their login credentials, the script redirects the victim to a document or web page owned by the targeted organization.

Image 3: A view of the phishing webpage for harvesting credentials.
Image 3: A view of the phishing webpage for harvesting credentials.

If valid credentials were submitted, the actors behind the phishing campaign would harvest them. Once harvested, the threat actors would then use the compromised accounts to send phishing emails to victims’ contacts; the emails may have been viewed as “trusted” by email services given that they were coming from legitimate email accounts. This practice helps threat actors committing Business Email Compromise (BEC) gain a better foothold into target organizations, and allows them to potentially breach additional organizations. Actors can also use the credentials from compromised accounts to monitor inboxes for additional incoming and outgoing information.


Flashpoint analysts assess that these attacks are likely being carried out by attackers located in Western Africa due to the originating IP addresses of the phishing emails, as well as the actors’ tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), such as the focus on credential phishing, the absence of malware, and a lack of operations security (OPSEC) practices on the attackers’ part.

Based on artifacts left in the PDFs, these documents likely represent a small glimpse into the credential phishing community of West African cybercriminals.

Image 4: A phishing email sent from a cloud-provided email service provider has a Nigerian IP address as the originating IP.
Image 4: A phishing email sent from a cloud-provided email service provider has a Nigerian IP address as the originating IP.

While BEC actors operating out of western Africa are broadly considered among the lowest-skilled cyber threat actors, they have been responsible for more than $5 billion USD in fraud in the last three years. In comparison, ransomware was projected to be a $1 billion USD industry in 2016, and Europol estimated that the now-defunct AlphaBay Market was responsible for almost $1 billion USD in business between its creation in 2014 and its closure in July 2017.

BEC actors and cybercriminals located in West Africa typically do not make significant efforts to enhance their OPSEC practices or conceal their locations; however, they are still largely successful in stealing billions of dollars from publicly traded and high-profile organizations each year.

Additional information on Business Email Compromise (BEC) is available in the Cisco 2017 Midyear Cybersecurity Report. Access it here.

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